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Framlingham Castle in Suffolk was built in the 12th century as a medieval fortress, and today provides an atmospheric walk around the spot where Mary I was first proclaimed Queen of England.
Framlingham Castle history
The exact date of the first Framlingham Castle’s construction remains unknown, however the earliest records of its existence date to the year 1148.
It was at this time owned by Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk, who was an important member of the court of the Plantagenet kings, and in 1173 took part in the rebellion against King Henry II. This failed however, and as a result Framlingham was slighted, or destroyed beyond military use.
When his son Roger Bigod returned to favour under Richard I, a new castle at Framlingham was constructed in 1213. With its 13 imposing mural towers and stone walls, the new Framlingham Castle served as a fortress and status symbol, and was the home of the Dukes of Norfolk for over 400 years.
Over the centuries, Framlingham Castle has enjoyed a diverse history, often finding itself at the centre of power struggles and as the home of prominent noble families such as the Mowbrays and the Howards.
In the 16th century, Mary I used Framlingham Castle as a refuge following Edward VI’s death, raising an army of supporters to bolster her claim to the English throne and pressure the Privy Council to accept her rule over Lady Jane Grey. In 1553 she was proclaimed Queen of England inside its walls.
After its decline as a noble residence, in the 17th to the 19th centuries a workhouse operated inside the castle, providing the nearby town’s paupers with work and lodgings.
Framlingham Castle today
Today, Framlingham Castle is under the remit of English Heritage and is open to the public. Visitors can walk around its imposing curtain wall which allows for wonderful views over the site, in particular its numerous chimneys – they are the oldest 12th century and Tudor chimneys in the country!
The workhouse may also be explored and is the last remaining structure inside the castle’s walls. Today it holds an exhibit detailing Framlingham’s fascinating history and that of its past occupants, including the infamous ‘Bloody Mary’.
A number of hands-on activities are also available at the exhibit, including the Hats Through the Ages dress-up section that allows visitors to don a range of historical headwear from a Norman helmet to a Tudor gentleman’s cap!
Getting to Framlingham Castle
Framlingham Castle is located in Framlingham in Suffolk, and can be reached by the taking the B1119 road from either the A1120 or the A12. Parking is available at the site, while the nearest train stations are Wickham Market, 6.5 miles away, and Saxmundham, 7 miles away. The Ipswich Buses service 118 also runs from Ipswich and stops at the White Horse, a 6-minute walk to the site.
History Of Framlingham Castle
History Of Framlingham Castle Medieval Period The site has been used since the sixth century. It was an anglo Saxon Fort. Under the Normans from 1066 onwards the Motte and Bailey were built so therefore the Hill at Framlingham is man made. Until 1101 it was under the control of the King. In 1101 the castle was given to Roger Le Bigod. HE fought with William The Conqueror at the battle of Hastings. He was also given lots of land in Norfolk, he was rewarded by Henry the first. Roger died and was followed by his son William. William however died at a fairly young age sailing back from France. Rogers' second son Hugh then got the estate. Hugh Bigod Hugh Bigod inherited the estate in 1120. In 1122 he was made constable of Norwich castle, which meant he looked after the castle for the crown. At this time Henry I only has a daughter called Matilda to take the thrown when he dies. There is a big crisis over gets the thrown. Stephen Of Blois claims the English thrown. Stephen plans to invade England once Henry dies. Henry dies when Matilda is in France so Stephen of Blois invades and is crowned King. Henry Bigod supports Stephens invasion but Hugh had promised Henry that he would help Matilda get the thrown. In the next year Hugh turns against king Stephen, he launches a rebellion from Norwich castle. King Stephen crushes this rebellion but forgives Hugh. In 1153 Hugh supports another invasion this time by Henry of Anjoue. . read more.
The last two important words are site and sources this being the site of Framlingham castle at the moment and sources about the castle. So in order to answer the question I must use both of these to come to a good conclusion to the hypothesis. Uses Of The Castle During The Different Time Periods And How Its Been Adapted For These In the medieval period Framlingham castle was used as a basis to attack and defend. There were many things that made Framlingham suited for this. The Anglo Saxons first notices this as they built a fort here. The motte and bailey was added by the Normans to go in keeping with the rest of there castles as the Normans felt this was the best way for quick and easy building of defence positions, you can see the motte and bailey in the site pictures. Roger Bigod II built stonewalls around the site with defence in mind. You can see this for a number of reasons. The walls are very large and thick as stated in source A ' It has walls 4 feet high and 8 feet thick" First off the Crenellation of the top of the wall is a defense feature. The crenellation is made up of merlons and embrasures. A merlon is where there is a gap in the wall and an embrasure is where the wall is raised. You can see this in Sorrel's painting of medieval Framlingham (painted in the 1950's) and also in the site photos I have taken. . read more.
Each parish had to build a poorhouse where the poor could live and work. There work would be simple like making rope and any money made would go back into the running cost of the poorhouse (this was called indoor relief) Where no poorhouses were built people would be helped in their homes (this was called outdoor beliefs) This is why Framlingham had a poorhouse built there. In 1834 a new poor law passed. Saying that parishes had to come together to make 'union' work. This meant more often then not paupers (poor people) would now have to receive help outside their parish. This meant that buildings that were there for the original poor law were now left abandoned. This is why Framingham's poorhouse stopped functioning. Another important part of this time period was the Victorian attitude to old buildings. During this time Victorians built many new buildings in the gothic style such as the houses of parliament. The Victorians were not very interested in preserving old buildings so many buildings such as castles fell into disrepair. Which is why Framlingham was only used very sparadically In the twentieth century societies with the aims of preserving buildings and sites directly linked with our past were setup. These include "English Heritage" and "National Trust". The tourism industry grew with people becoming paid members of these groups. The profits from the organizations are then used to purchase more sites and restore them thus leading to even bigger growth of the tourism industry. Also at the same time as this history became a larger part in school teaching and so these sites are also used by schools as trip locations and fieldwork. . read more.
This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level British History: Monarchy & Politics section.
Framlingham Castle - History - 14th Century
Edward II gave the castle to his half-brother, Thomas of Brotherton, the Earl of Norfolk. Records show that Framlingham was only partially furnished around this time, although it is unclear if this was because it was in limited use, or because fittings and furnishings were moved from castle to castle with the owner as he traveled, or if the castle was simply being refurnished. The castle complex continued to thrive, however, and on Thomas' death in 1138 the castle passed first to his widow, Mary, and then in 1362 into the Ufford family. William de Ufford, the Earl of Suffolk, held the castle during the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, with much of the revolt occurring close to Framlingham. From the Uffords, the castle passed first to Margaret Brotherton, the self-styled "Countess-Marshall", and then to Thomas de Mowbray, the Duke of Norfolk. The Mowbrays seem to have used Framlingham Castle as their main seat of power for most of the 15th century.
With as many as 83 people living in the castle at any one time, the castle played a major role in the surrounding economy during the period. Large amounts of food and drink were purchased to support the household - over twelve months in 1385-6, for example, over £1,000 was spent, including the purchase of 28,567 imperial gallons (129,870 L) of ale and 70,321 loaves of bread. By the 14th century the castle was purchasing goods from across western Europe, with wine being imported from France, venison from parks as far away as Northamptonshire and spices from the Far East through London-based merchants. The castle purchased some goods, such as salt, through the annual Stourbridge Fair at nearby Cambridge, then one of the biggest economic events in Europe. Some of this expenditure was supported by the demesne manor attached to the castle, which comprised 168 hectares (420 acres) of land and 5,000 days of serf labour under feudal law. A vineyard was created at the castle in the late 12th century, and a bakery and a horse mill were built in the castle by the 14th century. Surrounding manors also fed in resources to the castle in twelve months between 1275-6, £434 was received by the castle from the wider region.
Two large lakes, called meres, were formed alongside the castle by damming a local stream. The southern mere, still visible today, had its origins in a smaller, natural lake once dammed, it covered 9.4 hectares (23 acres) and had an island with a dovecote built on it. The meres were used for fishing as well as for boating, and would have had extensive aesthetic appeal. It is uncertain exactly when the meres were first built. One theory suggests that the meres were built in the early 13th century, although there is no documentary record of them at least until the 1380s. Another theory is that they were formed in the first half of the 14th century, at around the same time as the Lower Court was constructed. A third possibility is that it was the Howard family who introduced the meres in the late 15th century as part of their modernisation of the castle.
Framlingham Castle - History
Records show that as early as 1148, there was a traditional motte and baily style castle on the site of present day Framlingham Castle, which was destroyed by Henry II in the aftermath of the revolt of 1173.
The Earl of Norfolk constructed a new castle in its place consisting of 13 towers along a curtain wall and no central keep. Despite these new defenses, the castle was besieged and successfully taken by King John in 1216. By the end of the 13th century, the castle had become more of a hunting lodge.
Framlingham Castle fell into disrepair by the end of the 16th century and was given to Pembroke College in 1636 when most of the internal buildings were removed to make way for the construction of a poor house.
Echoes of Framlingham Castle’s past are still ever present within its grounds .
The castle has given rise to some very strange stories indeed - chilling tales of mysterious faces, ghostly footsteps and disembodied screams, heard by staff echoing through the castle's downstairs rooms. As recently as the summer of 2013, reports of children's voices coming from the empty courtyard have been made, with many visitors saying that it sounded as though they were playing .
Roger Bigod was a follower of King William I at the battle of Hastings in 1066 and as a reward for his service was made Sheriff of Suffolk and in 1101 he was given Framlingham Castle by Henry I.
His son, Hugh Bigod was made the 1st Earl of Norfolk in 1141 but was never particularly loyal to the Crown. In 1173 Hugh rebelled against Henry II but found himself on the losing side. He was allowed to keep his lands and title on condition he went on crusade to the Holy Lands where he died in 1177.
He was succeeded by his son Roger Bigod, 2nd Earl of Norfolk who rebelled against King John in the Barons' Revolt and was a signatory of the Magna Carta in 1216, dying in 1221.
His son Hugh Bigord, was briefly 3rd Earl of Norfolk until 1225 and when he died was followed by his son, Roger Bigod, the 4th Earl who died childless in 1270 and was succeeded by his nephew Roger Bigod the 5th Earl.
The 5th Earl had an infamous argument with King Edward I and was repeatedly accused by him of disloyalty. In 1302 Roger was forced to agree to surrender the castle to the Crown on his death, which came in 1306.
Revolt against Henry II
Second Barons' War
In 1312 Framlingham was given to Prince Thomas of Brotherton by King Edward II. Brotherton was Edward II's uncle being his late father's fifth and youngest son. Brotherton had already been made Earl of Norfolk in 1300.
When Prince Thomas died in 1338 his title and estate passed to his daughter Margaret who was his sole surviving heir. Margaret was granted the newly created title Duchess of Norfolk in 1397 and died in 1399.
Thomas de Mowbray inherited Framlingham through his late mother, Elizabeth de Segrave, in March 1399. Elizabeth was the only daughter and heiress of Margaret, the elderly Duchess of Norfolk and last of the Brotherton line.
Mowbray kept the castle but was quickly reduced in status to earl by Henry IV when he took the throne in September 1399. Mowbray served the Crown well and was later made Duke of Norfolk when that title was recreated by Henry VI in 1425. The last of the Mowbrays died in 1476.
Wars of the Roses
John Howard was a grandson of Thomas de Mowbray and inherited the castle in 1476 but not the dukedom which reverted to the Crown. However, after the sudden death of Edward IV and the accession of Richard III, Howard was awarded the recreated title 1st Duke of Norfolk.
The 1st Duke was killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field fighting alongside Richard III and thereby forfeited his title and estates to the new king, Henry VII.
John's son, Thomas Howard, served Henry VII loyally and was restored to his title of duke (2nd Duke) and his property in 1514. When he died in 1524 his son Thomas Howard became 3rd Duke and inherited Framllngham.
During the reign of Henry VIII the Howard's were closely connected to the royal family - Catherine Howard (the 3rd Duke's niece) became Queen of England in 1540 but after she was executed for treason only sixteen months later the Howard's fell from favour. In 1546 the 3rd Duke was arrested but was released when Henry VIII died in 1547. The 3rd Duke died in in 1554 and was succeeded by his grandson, Thomas Howard, the 4th Duke.
The 4th Duke was suspected of being part of a Catholic plot and was executed for treason for conspiring against Elizabeth I in 1572. The Norfolk title and lands were forfeit once again.
After the death of Elizabeth I in 1603 the Howards were immediately restored to much of their lands (including Framlingham) and later, following a petition in the House of Lords, to their title of Duke of Norfolk in 1660. However, the family were in poor financial circumstances and had sold the castle at Framlingham to a private buyer (Mr. Hitcham) in 1635.
The Howard family continue to hold the titles Duke of Norfolk, Earl of Surrey and Earl Marshal of England. The 18th Duke is Edward Fitzalan-Howard (since 2002).
Framlingham Castle is an externally perfect moated 12th-century castle. The fortress consists of a curtain wall punctuated by 13 square towers. The curtain wall has remained in an exceptional state of preservation despite the castle's advanced age, and the renovations of later centuries, which saw Framlingham used as a school, a poorhouse, and a prison.
The site was probably used for fortifications as early as the 6th century, but of those early structures, nothing remains. Framlingham enters history more firmly at the turn of the 12th century when the estate was given by Henry I to Roger Bigod.
It seems likely that Bigod built a simple wooden motte and bailey castle at Framlingham, but it was left to his second son, Hugh, later the first Earl of Norfolk, to replace that structure with one of stone. That fortification was ordered dismantled by Henry II about 1175, but it was rebuilt by Hugh's son Roger, the Second Earl of Norfolk, about 1190. It is largely Roger's work that visitors can see today.
So strong were the towers built by Roger Bigod that a central keep was considered unnecessary for the defences of Framlingham. However, Framlingham had not been in existence long before it did indeed fall to besiegers. That occurred when Roger Bigod supported the baron's resistance to King John that resulted in the Magna Carta.
John was not the forgiving sort, and he besieged Framlingham in 1216. The castle garrison held out only two days before surrendering, however, King John did not have long to live, and Framlingham was restored to the Bigods following the king's death.
Framlingham Castle changed hands several times over the ensuing centuries until it finally came to the Howard family. Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, added much of the Tudor brickwork in the late 15th century. Henry VIII seized Framlingham for the crown, and later, Edward VI gave it to his sister, the future Queen Mary. It was at Framlingham that Mary waited for news of Henry VIII's death.
The castle was restored to the Howards by Mary but was then seized by Elizabeth I after her ascension to the throne. Under Elizabeth, it was used as a prison for Catholic priests, but upon her death it was once more returned to the Howards. Finally, in 1635 Framlingham was sold to Sir Robert Hitcham.
Following Hitcham's death the castle was used as a poorhouse, and later, to house victims of the Plague. Over the intervening centuries, Framlingham has been used variously as a courthouse, drill hall, meeting hall, workhouse, and a fire station, before finally passing into the hands of English Heritage, whose work it has been to preserve the castle.
Though the interior of Framlingham offers little to recall its days of power, the exterior, including the curtain wall and towers, offer a very enjoyable day out. Visitors can walk along the top of the castle wall, which is protected by railings.
NB. Visitors can see the tombs of the Howard family, Dukes of Norfolk, at nearby St Michael Church.
Most photos are available for licensing, please contact Britain Express image library.
About Framlingham Castle
Address: Church Street, Framlingham, East Anglia, Suffolk, England, IP13 9BP
Attraction Type: Castle
Location: on B1116
Website: Framlingham Castle
English Heritage - see also: English Heritage memberships (official website)
Photo Credit: David Ross and Britain Express
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A Short History of the Castle
Framlingham Castle was built by the Bigod family in the twelfth century, with the present masonry curtain walls and towers replacing an earlier castle on the site, thought to have been built c.1100. Roger Bigod, a Norman, had come over to England with William the Conqueror and served him faithfully as Sheriff of Norfolk. Although not a noble, he was rewarded for his loyalty, including being granted the manor of Framlingham. However, it was Roger’s grandson who built the current castle towards the end of the twelfth century.
To cut quite a convoluted story short, the castle passed back and forth between private ownership and the Crown until 1397, when Thomas Mowbray was made Duke of Norfolk. The title of ‘Duke of Norfolk’ then passed to the Howard family by marriage, John Howard becoming the first ‘Howard’ to hold the title. It is he who is thought to have carried out extensive repairs to, and a great deal of refurbishment around, the castle site. He was killed though in 1485, at the Battle of Bosworth Field, whilst leading the Yorkist cause under his sovereign, Richard III.
His son, another Thomas Howard, (eventually) the 2nd Duke of Norfolk, (father to Elizabeth Howard, Anne Boleyn’s mother) is thought to have undertaken much of the Tudor refurbishment of the castle. This included the remodelling of the gatehouse, whose doors are authentically of the period, (dendrochronology having shown that the timber was most likely felled in the period AD 1496–1528) and the addition of the red-brick chimneys, so iconic of the Tudor period. These survive to this day. Thomas died at Framlingham Castle in 1524 at the ripe old age of 80. He was buried at nearby Thetford Priory following a lavish funeral. One wonders whether the likes of Elizabeth Boleyn, whose family were on the rise at that time, attended her father’s funeral.
The main entrance to Framlingham Castle, looking across the stone bridge into the inner bailey. Note the Tudor chimneys atop the the castle’s towers.
After the second duke’s death, his son, also Thomas, retained Framlingham, but lived at newly-built Kenningham Hall in Norfolk. He narrowly avoided execution in the dying days of Henry VIII’s reign, although the Howard title and lands were surrendered to the Crown. Hence in 1552, Mary Tudor was able to inherit Framlingham, having been granted the Howard estates in East Anglia.
Following the death of Edward VI on 6th July 1553, Mary got wind that the call to London by Northumberland and the Regency Council was a plot to seize her and thereby ensure that Mary would not be able not rally the country to declare in her favour. Whilst the protestant Lady Jane Grey was declared queen, the Lady Mary fled to her estates in Suffolk, eventually arriving at the stronghold of Framlingham on 12th July.
By the time Mary reached Framlingham she had about 15,000 men in her retinue, with numbers increasing daily, boosted by ‘innumerable small companies of the common people’ (Wriothesley’s Chronicle). When Northumberland’s campaign floundered and ended with his surrender, the Earl of Arundel and Lord Paget ‘rode in post’ to the queen, taking with them 30 horses (Wriothesley’s Chronicle). They arrived on Thursday 20th July, and on bended knee informed Mary that she had been proclaimed queen in London. By the will of the people, conflict was avoided. Mary Tudor, Queen of England, left Framlingham in triumph on Monday 24th July, travelling to London to be crowned on 1st October 1553.
Framlingham Historical Photo Archive
Newsletters from the History Society and podcasts (audio recordings) are available on this site here.
Recordings of talks to the Society are available here.
The programme of face-to-face meetings has been cancelled during the current restrictions, but remote meetings by Zoom are being arranged, and details will be sent to members. It is hoped to arrange some summer visits. The programme is also on the History Society page.
Framlingham is a Suffolk town that is steeped in history. The castle where Mary Tudor was confirmed as Queen of England in 1553, the church of St. Michael, the Albert Memorial College, and many other fine buildings can all be seen during a visit to the town.
The invention of photography, and its development into a commercial reality towards the latter part of the 19th century, has left us with a good record of these buildings and the ways of life in this Suffolk town. Fram on Film portrays a selection of photographs which capture the town and its people over a period of approximately 100 years.
Many of the early photographs were taken by John Self, who moved to Framlingham in 1884, as a draper and tailor. Photography was mainly a hobby to him, but he did produce a large number of postcards, many of which have survived, and form an important part of the Archive. Channing Dowsing was a commercial photographer working between about 1912 and 1926. His work mainly survives in the form of family and commercial studies.
The photos can be accessed by selecting the Category of interest. Then click on the thumbnail to bring up the photo. Click the double arrow for following photos. If the caption is not showing, scroll up the photo. You can also select All Images
Photograph dates have been provided when known, or reasonable estimates given where appropriate. If you can update the information or identify any of the people, please contact us.
Additional photos are always needed. If you have just one or several, please contact us. They would be scanned and returned to you.
The archive can be searched see the Search images in the archive link on the right.
Framlingham Castle - History
Later Stone Keep / Royal and Baronial castle
Not complete but much survives
Only open at certain times
Unusually this castle does not have a central keep but has a large inner courtyard surrounded by a high curtain wall with 13 towers. There was a hall and chapel built along the inner side the curtain wall, and a range of buildings in the inner court would have served as living quarters.
Later Stone Keep / Royal and Baronial castle
Not complete but much survives
Only open at certain times
Unusually this castle does not have a central keep but has a large inner courtyard surrounded by a high curtain wall with 13 towers. There was a hall and chapel built along the inner side the curtain wall, and a range of buildings in the inner court would have served as living quarters.ramlingham Castle's location was probably fortified in some way a long time before the Normans first starting building their castle on it. After the Conquest Roger Bigod, a Norman knight who may have assisted in the invasion, was granted lands in Essex and Sussex. In 1101 he was given the lands of Framlingham by Henry I. Roger died in 1107 and his first son died on the 'White Ship' disaster along with William Adelin in 1120.
Roger's second son, Hugh, inherited the lands and became the Earl of Norfolk. Hugh probably built a motte type castle at Framlingham around 1140. During the Civil War between Stephen and Matilda Hugh changed sides as it pleased him, but when Henry II came to the throne, Hugh was confirmed as owner of the lands at Framlingham. Hugh had assisted Henry with his claim to the throne and was awarded accordingly. Hugh soon fell out with Henry and the castle was confiscated by the king. In 1165, Hugh raised enough money to buy the castle back off the Crown, but Henry built Orford Castle nearby to keep Hugh under control. After Hugh's involvement with the Baron's revolt in 1173, the castle again was confiscated by the Crown and destroyed. When Richard became King, Hugh was dead, and his son Roger now in favour with the King was able to regain ownership of Framlingham. Roger rebuilt the castle consisting of the thirteen towers of the curtain wall and the defensive earthworks.
In 1476 Framlingham Castle passed to John Howard, the Duke of Norfolk when he married into the Mowbray family. Previously the castle had belonged to the Mowbrays but the last male descendant died without an heir.
The castle became Crown property when King Henry VIII was either granted it or confiscated it. The castle became the home of Mary Tudor during the period when Lady Jane Grey threatened to take the English Crown and it was at Framlingham that Mary's supporters gathered in 1553 to fight for her cause.
That the club is called Framlingham Castle Bowls club is very apt. It not only explains our location but also our history. The extensive historical records which exist for Framlingham mention bowls as played on the present green more than once. In his renowned history of the town first published in 1833 R Green quotes the Revd. Richard Golty, the long serving Rector of the town in the 17th century. In his parish archives he wrote that in a park attached to the castle were “Castle yards, 4 acres, John Moore had them in 1649â€¦.and an acre of barley, in the bowling aly”.
This is consistent with other histories of the game written for the game nationally and internationally. The sport was almost certainly a sport for the privileged and rich. It seems that bowling greens may have been of two main types, the private narrow greens (alleys) attached to castles and large houses or the more public yards where more ordinary folks played.
In his same history Green endorses the above comment and describes the use of the green in the 19 th century. “In Summer there is a fine bowling green adjoining the Castle for recreation abroad. There can be little doubt that the latter is a spot which has from time immemorial been used for the enjoyment of bowling”. He further adds, “ The green is open from the first week in May to the first week in October, and two clubs are held, viz the Tradesmen’s on Wednesdays and the Gentleman’s on Thursdays”.
The problem that confronted the club as it entered the 20 th century was that the green was unsuitable for playing the game in straight rinks as codified by the Scottish players Wm. Mitchell and James Brown in 1892. At that time the green was not level. Some versions say that it was saucer shaped, some say it sloped considerably towards the Mere on its west side. Whichever Framlingham players countered this by playing with woods which had a very exaggerated bias.
This had frustrating, if amusing, consequences. In the Framlingham Weekly News of 21 st August,1909 we read: “ Sad to relate, not one of the members of Framlingham Bowling Club who visited Saxmundham on Monday succeeded in achieving anything worth talking about. The result is due entirely to their biased bowls which, though best adapted to the Framlingham green, are next to useless on level courts of the Scotch pattern”.
This problem was not properly resolved until the 1950s when due to the enterprise of one Ken Freeman and the generosity of Mr. James Mason Martin, the green was purchased from Pembroke College, custodians of the castle as trustees of the will of the former owner, Sir Robert Hitcham.
This enabled the club to undertake the task of properly flattening the green to produce one of the best bowling surfaces in the county. Visitors delight on playing on an excellent surface with one of the best settings to be found,
The club affiliated to the County Association in 1922. The County in turn joined the EBA in 1934. Framlingham was first mentioned in the national handbook along with 25 other Suffolk clubs in the year 1949.