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2 November 1939

2 November 1939

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2 November 1939



War in the Air

Two German aircraft shot down over the Western Front

German shock troops raid French lines

French patrols are active between the Blies and the Rhine

2 November 1939 - History

Adolf Hitler gained power in Germany by exploiting the psychological injuries inflicted on Germans by World War I. Tapping into an ugly strain of anti-Semitism in German culture, he blamed many of the nation's economic woes on German Jews, who only constituted one percent of Germany's population. In addition, he attacked the Treaty of Versailles. Purged of so-called Jewish traitors, cleared of the blame for causing the war, freed from onerous reparation payments, and rescued from emasculating disarmament, Germany would rise anew and reclaim her position as a world leader.

The Treaty of Versailles had saddled Germany with a reparations bill of $33 billion. Unable to make the interest payments, Germany's economy suffered a wave of inflation without precedent. Forty million marks were worth one cent. A newspaper cost 200 million marks. In 1924, Charles Dawes, a prominent American banker, worked out a proposal (the Dawes Plan) that reduced the reparations bill to $2 billion and provided Germany with an American loan. Nevertheless, even this burden was more than Germany could pay.

Hitler's drive for political power began in 1919 when he joined a small party, later known as the Nazis. This party demanded that all Jews be deprived of German citizenship, and that all German-speakers be united into a single country. A brilliant propagandist, organizer, and orator, Hitler gave the Nazi movement a potent symbol: the swastika raised party membership to 15,000 by 1923 and formed a private army, the storm troopers, to attack his political opponents. In the fall of 1923, Hitler engineered a revolt, the Beer Hall Putsch, to overthrow Germany's five year old republic. The uprising was quickly suppressed the Nazi party was ordered dissolved, and Hitler was imprisoned for nine months.

While in jail, Hitler wrote a book, Mein Kampf (My Struggle), which laid out his beliefs and vision for Germany. He called on Germans to repudiate the Versailles Treaty ending World War I rearm conquer countries with large German populations like Austria and Czechoslovakia and seize lebensraum (living space) for Germans in Russia.

Following his release from prison, Hitler persuaded the German government to lift its ban on the Nazi party. In 1928, the Nazis polled just 810,000 votes in German elections however, in 1930 after the Depression began, they polled 6 ½ million votes. Two years later, Hitler ran for president he lost, but received 13 ½ million votes--37 percent of all votes cast. The Nazis had suddenly become the single largest party in the German parliament. In January 1933, Germany's president named Hitler chancellor. A year and a half later Hitler was Germany's dictator.

Within months of becoming chancellor, Hitler's government outlawed labor unions, imposed newspaper censorship, and decreed that the Nazis would constitute Germany's only political party. The regime established a secret police force, the Gestapo, to suppress all opposition and required all children, 10 years and older, to join youth organizations designed to inculcate Nazi beliefs. By 1935, Hitler had transformed Germany into a fascist state. The government exercised total control over all political, economic, and cultural activities.

Anti-Semitism was an integral part of Hitler's political program. The 1935 Nuremberg Laws forbade intermarriages, restricted property rights, and barred Jews from the civil service, the universities, and all professional and managerial occupations. On the night of November 9, 1939--a night now known as Kristallnacht (the night of the broken glass)--the Nazis imprisoned more than 20,000 Jews in concentration camps and destroyed more than 200 synagogues and 7,500 Jewish businesses.

During the 1930s, a series of threats to world peace arose. Japan attacked China Italy attacked Ethiopia and Nazi Germany rearmed, occupied the Rhineland, annexed Austria, and seized Czechoslovakia.

Bypaths of Kansas History - November 1939

(Vol. 8, No. 4), pages 399 to 406.
Transcribed by lhn
digitized with permission of the Kansas Historical Society.


From The Kansas Herald of Freedom, Lawrence, June 2, 1855.

Having a day of leisure, and finding the Emma Harmon at our Levee last Monday morning advertised for Kansas City, Mo., we jumped on board as she was leaving her moorings at eight o'clock in the morning, and in a moment after found ourself, with several friends, gliding at a rapid rate down the Kansas river. Immediately after leaving Lawrence we found both banks of the river densely wooded, presenting a lovely appearance, such as the mind naturally infers to be peculiar to rivers of the tropics.

The banks of the river we found to be high, and the bed of the same uniform width the entire distance. One peculiarity of the tributaries was, that at their confluence with the Kansas their mouths were very narrow, and said to be quite deep. Not a foot of low, marshy ground is seen along the river. The current sweeps on at the rate of five or six miles an hour, and presents a darkish mud color, contrasting quite forcibly with the clayey appearance of the Missouri. This difference in the shade of colors between the two rivers is so great that on passing out of the mouth of the Kansas into the Missouri it seems as if a bed of clay was spread out before us, and we observed that this distinguishing difference was preserved in the Missouri down to Kansas City the waters of Kansas river retaining the southern shore, and preserving its darkish hue the entire distance, it being near two miles.

The steamer rounded to about eight miles below Lawrence, and tied up to the tree, while the crew loaded on from the shore some ten cords of wood, which the Delaware Indians had cut and piled up there for sale. We were happy to observe that the vices of the whites had not corrupted them in one respect, and that in relation to measure. They had marked off by stakes the number of cords they claimed, and in every instance had given more than full measure. Capt. Wing concluded that the Delawares were strictly honest, and hence took the whole pile. Casting loose again after a detention of one and a half hours we passed the mouth of the Wakarusa on our right, and immediately below it a beautiful town site, with a high bluff, and a rocky shore, so straight and nicely formed it seemed as if art had been there with her implements and trimmed the whole to her taste. As soon as the lands at this point are in a position that titles can be acquired they will be selected for a town site by some enterprising capitalist.

A few miles farther on, probably fifteen below Lawrence, on the north side, there is another lovely prospect for a town we believe the most enchanting we ever saw. The bank is about fifty feet high, gradually sloping back to an altitude of some seventy-five feet. The shore, like the point at Wakarusa, is straight and resembles a well built wharf in many of the prosperous places on the Eastern canals, with the exception that the elevation above the rocky shore is more precipitous, and better adapted for a town site. The earth was decked with a luxuriant garb of wild grass, and a grove of native trees decorated the landscape, and made the whole truly enchanting. If the


river shall remain navigable until the fourth of July next, we propose a picnic party to this lovely place, now the property of the Delawares, and the future site of the most important point between Lawrence and the mouth of the Kansas river.

Some forty miles below here, on the south side of the river, is an Indian village, known as Delaware. It is also a commanding position, and when Yankee enterprise shall be able to gain a foothold, and commence improvements we may expect to see it more frequently alluded to in our public journals. Wyandot is on the north side of the river, and located at its mouth. Since the title to the soil has been conveyed to the occupants in severalty by government we have no doubt but enterprise will get possession, and we apprehend Kansas City will find in her a powerful rival.

The Emma Harmon arrived at her landing in Kansas City at a few minutes past three o'clock P. M., making the trip, aside from the time consumed in weeding, in less than six hours. The scenery, along the river, the smiling faces, kind expressions, and warm hearts of the officers and crew, and the entire freedom from coarse and vulgar language on board the boat made this, our first trip down the Kansas river, one never to be forgotten. It was the first trip down the river this season.

On Tuesday Captain Wing took on board about fifty passengers, and something over a hundred tons of freight and on Wednesday evening tied up at our wharf, having made rather slow progress on account of the rapid current, and the loss of her rudder from having run into a snag the night previous.

We take this occasion to express to the captain, clerk, and in fact the entire officers and crew, our thanks for the uniform courtesy exhibited by them to us, as well as all on board on both our downward and upward passage. By an advertisement in another place it will be seen that the Emma Harmon is advertised as a regular semiweekly packet between this point and Kansas City. We trust she will be liberally sustained, and that the proprietors will never have occasion to regret their acquaintance with the Kansas river.


Packet Steamer Emma Harmon, J. W. Wing, Master, will leave Kansas City every Monday and Thursday returning will leave Lawrence every Wednesday and Saturday.-The public may depend upon this steamer being prompt and regular, also that she will continue in the trade for the season. Every effort will be made to give satisfaction. In consideration we solicit the patronage of shippers and passengers. For freight or passage apply on board, or to

June 2, 1855.-6m.


From the White Cloud Kansas Chief, March 25, 1858.

GREAT TIME AMONG THE INDIANS-HEAP DOG!-A grand Dog Feast came off among the Iowas, on last Sunday. Although the Indians do not fancy dog meat much, yet when they wish to have an extra occasion, they feast on a dog. The circumstances which brought about this "love feast" were about as follows:

On the first of the present month, the Iowas made a law among themselves, that if any member of the tribe drank whisky or got drunk before their crops were all in the ground, he should be whipped. [Mem. We would recommend this law to many of the whites. Perhaps provisions would be cheaper and times easier, in that event.] Now, Elisha Dorian, their interpreter, or 'Lish, as he is commonly called, has about as good a head for whisky as any of his neighbors, and he thought to come a sly touch over his brethren. He and another red-skin took a private snifter together but somehow their gauge had been set in the wrong notch, and they got too much "whisk" into them, and became glorious "big Injins." The tribe decided that they must be whipped but 'Lish thought to come old Buck over them, and bribe them off. He came to town, bought a big dog, a number of sacks of flour, some sugar, and lots of good things, and offered the tribe a grand feast. But they refused to partake of his feast, and, to escape the whipping, he crossed to the other side of the river. But alas l the Indians are becoming almost as corrupt as congressmen. Negotiations commenced, the Indians agreed to accept the feast, and 'Lish returned from his banishment. On Sunday the feast came off, and 'Lish's back remained sound.

Tuesday seemed to be a grand holiday among the Iowas. The whole tribemen, women, children, horses and dogs, were in town, and they carried home a very large quantity of flour. We have heard that they also obtained this through the bounty of 'Lish, but cannot say as to whether it was or not. But the occasion was an extra one, for most of the Indians (even including the women) had on clean clothes] A majority of the women had pappooses, which they carried at their backs, in their blankets, with their bare heads sticking out above, exposed to the hot rays of the sun. And we noticed that those women who had no pappooses, carried young pups at their backs, with their heads sticking out, in the same manner that they carry their children l They had quite a large number of these pups along but what they meant by it, is beyond our comprehension-as old Leather-stocking would say, "the Indian's gifts are not our gifts." One effect of their temperance arrangement was plainly observable-they attended to their business in short order, and then went home, without hanging for a whole day about the whisky shops.

Wednesday was another flour day with the Indians, and they carried off "dead loads" of it. We have ]earned that they obtained it through the bounty of Mr. Roy, at the rate of four or five dollars per sack, when they get the money. We saw a wagon drawn by oxen, containing about half a load, and just behind the wagon was an old squaw, some fifty or sixty years of age, toddling along with a large sack of flour strapped to her back! We saw a number of squaws carrying sacks on their backs, while the braves rode home on horseback)


From the Emporia News.

Mr. John J. Greenhalgh, of Madison Center, on the Verdigris river, about twenty miles south of this place, saw two young bears while on his way from that place to Emporia on Tuesday morning last with the mail. This is the first instance we have ever heard of bears anywhere in this region of country.



Mr. G. pursued the animals for some distance, but being entirely unarmed he was unable to capture either of them. Several times he came within five or six feet of the bears, when they would stop, turn on him, and throwing themselves upon their hind feet, evincing a desire to give him a "hug" which he would not soon forget. MT. G. tried to give the people of Emporia a surprise by killing one of them and bringing it to town. He drove them half a mile or more in this direction, but they finally made their escape through the tall grass.-July 13, 1861.

We learn that Messrs. Fisher, Jonathan Wood and other citizens of Chase county killed a large black bear, a few days ago, on the Cottonwood, just this side of Cottonwood Falls. The bear was wandering through the country alone, and no one could tell where it came from. Some suppose it to have been an escaped pet from somewhere up the Cottonwood. It was first discovered near Mr. Fisher's residence. He got his gun and snapped the last cap at him he had about the premises, without getting his gun to "go off." Mr. Wood and other neighbors were informed, when "bruin" was soon brought down.October 20, 1866.


From The Big Blue Union, Marysville, August 1, 1863.

"LEFT HERE.-A young man who has been stopping here for some days, left this place Thursday night, in the dark. A saddle and bridle, belonging to a soldier, left at the same time. Singular coincidence."

This "coincidence," as mentioned in last week's Union, was the first intimation the people had here that a horse thief was among them, and not until the Sunday following was it ascertained that a horse was stolen from this vicinity, at which time it was found that Judge Brumbaugh, of this place, was the sufferer. Knowing that the valley of the Big Blue had been the ground of past operations of the suspected thief, immediate preparation was made for pursuit, and hitching a span of horses to his buggy, the judge invited us to accompany him to Manhattan. The exigency demanded speed, and we (not editorially and singularly "we" alone, but the "we" constituting the judge and ourself) set sail on our Sunday mission immediately.


The first night was passed at John Wells', on the Vermillion, where we found comfortable fare and accommodations, and early Monday morning found us on our way down the Big Blue valley, forty-five miles of which still ]ay between us and Manhattan. The day was delightful.-The aroma from the red cedars and wild flowers was wafted to our senses by a gentle breeze. The defiles of "dumpling"-shaped hills, rearing themselves like sturdy sentinels each side of the Blue, ribbed and crowned at their tops by splendid specimens of limestone, as neatly arranged and divided into blocks as if done by the stone-cutter's hand the ravines and abrupt cannons penetrating the bluffs, skirted by shrubbery and scattering forest trees the tall cottonwood and majestic oak watching the shining waters the bottom lands waving with luxuriant grass, improved and interspersed here and there by an opened farm


the wheat field nicely shaven and the corn tassels waving in the wind-the whole spread out before us like a panorama scene, enlarging as we descended the stream to its mouth. The few farms which we passed were promising a most abundant crop. The Indian lands or "floats" are a great hindrance to this one of the finest valleys in the West. Every acre is capable of cultivation, and on a trip through one frequently finds himself revolving the idea of what a vast population the valley is capable of sustaining when it shall have been improved and the "hum of busy industry" is heard its entire length.


At the house of Mr. Pierce, about twelve miles north of Manhattan, and where we obtained our dinner, we were informed of the arrest of a notorious horse thief and that his examination and trial was progressing at the latter place. We hurried on and found the person arraigned in a citizens' court and before a jury of twelve, the thief sought for. His eye dropped as we entered the court room, and after being sworn and giving our testimony in the case the fellow hardly raised his head again. The case was a clear one and was soon decided by the jury bringing in a verdict of guilty on all of the charges. He was then remanded to jail to await further action, after which, at his request, a committee was appointed to hear his confession, which consisted in not only acknowledging the theft in the present case but of all his operations extending through more than two years' time and embracing various degrees of crime and theft. He also implicated other parties. After the confession the meeting was called together according to previous adjournment, a committee appointed to fix the sentence and when and where it should be executed. The committee reported hanging, and after a short time allowed the culprit he was taken the same night across the bridge of the Blue into Pottawatomie county, a short distance east from town, and there publicly executed.


Consisted of a wagon drawn under a leaning willow tree from which was suspended the rope. The cord adjusted around the victim's neck, he was asked if he had anything he wished to say. His reply was simply "No" and a little further time being occupied in the preparation, he continued, "Go ahead G-d"-whether the last word was the commencement of an oath or the imploring for mercy we could not determine, tho we thought it an expression of impatience to be out of his misery, from which he was evidently suffering intensely. But the final drop came at last and the soul of Monroe Scranton passed from time to eternity.-The night was black with dark, heavy clouds, the elms and willows bowed beneath a strong wind and large drops of rain fell, as if Heaven was closing the scene by weeping over the crimes of man.


Throughout were of the most orderly nature. The people were calm, but determined, and when Mr. Brumbaugh made a request that the thief might be brought back to this county to be dealt with by the people here, they replied that his past operations in Riley and Pottawatomie counties were sufficient to condemn him, and that they must make him an example before their community.


The circumstances of the capture of the thief, the regaining of the stolen property and incidents connected therewith all seemed providentially ordered.


The horse recovered, the thief hung, and all accomplished within four days from the time of the perpetration of the crime, we started on our way home rejoicing.-We returned by the way of the settlements on Mill, Fancy, Fawn creeks and the Little Blue, passing some fine country, but no incident worthy of note, with the exception of a sudden rise of the Blue, occurred to hinder or give variety to our trip.

From the Wyandott Herald, October 15, 1874.

A Milwaukee paper says: "What is wanted in Kansas is more telegraph poles, or stronger ones. The average pole holds only about four horse thieves comfortably."


Superintendent's Office, A.T.&S.F.R.R., Topeka, June 23, 1869.

The above railroad will be opened for business on Monday, June 28th, 1869, between Topeka and Carbondale, at which point trains connect with stages for Burlingame and Emporia. Trains will run daily (except Sundays) as follows: Mixed train leaves Topeka at 6:15 a. m., arriving at Carbondale 7:45 a. m. Passenger leaves Carbondale 10:10 a. m. arrives at Topeka 11:30 a. m., and connects with east and west trains on Kansas Pacific. Returning leaves Topeka at 1:00 p. m. arriving at Carbondale 2:00 p. m. Mixed train leaves Carbondale 4:00 p. m. arriving at Topeka 5:45 p. m. T. J. PETER, Supt.

[Advertisement in the Kansas Daily Commonwealth, Topeka, June 25, 1869.]

WESTWARD Ho!-The first regular train left the A. T. & S. F. depot 6:15 yesterday morning, with a half-dozen or more through passengers.

All the southwest stage lines have discontinued running to this point, and are now connecting with the trains on the Santa Fe road at the end of the track. Passengers for Burlingame, Emporia, Neosho Valley, and other points Southwest, should come to Topeka, take the Santa Fe railroad to the end of the line, and thence by stage, saving time, money and lumber-wagon rides.Daily Kansas State Record, Topeka, June 29, 1869.

The A. T. & S. F. railroad has been open for business since the 1st of July. Cars have been running to Carbondale, eighteen miles distant, since then. One engine, one passenger coach, one express and baggage car, and twelve flat cars comprise the rolling stock up to the present time. There are on the road hither, direct from the manufacturers, two engines, two passenger coaches, twelve flat cars and twenty coal cars. The earnings of the road during the month of July were as follows:

From passengers, $939.20 from freight, $745.94. Total earnings, $1,685.14. The earnings for the month of August will be over three thousand dollars, and


the superintendent says they will continue to double for the next three months. There are seven employees on the road, as follows: conductor, Wm. Hagan engineer, Geo. E. Beach fireman, Britt Craft brakemen, Wm. Bartling, Albert Dugan stage agent, Geo. Draper express messenger, J. Eager news boy, William Beach. We publish these details, minor as they may appear, for future reference. They will look curious a few years hence!-Commonwealth, August 21, 1869.

Two car loads of cattle were shipped for the East today from Burlingame, the first shipment of the kind over the A. T. & S. F. R. R. This is but the small beginning of what is to be a source of great income to the railroad when it shall have been completed.-Commonwealth, October 1, 1869.

At the opening of the year 1870 the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad Company had no buildings in Topeka except the depot, an engine house with two stalls, and a small blacksmith shop. The close of the year finds considerable change. The machine shop now about completed is built substantially of wood, and is sixty-two feet wide by one hundred feet long. The two story, or front building, is thirty by sixty-two feet. This building contains a blacksmith shop and a carpenter and machine shop proper. There are also a pattern maker's shop, and the office of the master mechanic. The shop is provided with an engine of twenty-five horse power, and is fitted up with a fine drill press, built in Philadelphia, lathes, planers, and everything necessary for any work in wood or iron that may be called for. State Record, January 4, 1871.

The A.T. & S.F. R.R. Co. have received two new engines lately, but yet have not enough to do business without borrowing of the K. P.-North Topeka Times, October 12, 1871.

The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroad is assessed on seventy-one locomotives, thirty-six passenger cars, five sleeping cars, nine express and mail cars, four hundred and thirty-four box cars, four hundred and seventeen cattle cars, five hundred and seventy-five platform and coal cars, one hundred and fifty-eight hand cars, two wrecking cars, two pay cars, thirty cabooses and nine baggage cars. Total valuation of its rolling stock, $715,700. -Osage County Chronicle, Burlingame, copied in The Kansas Methodist, Topeka, July, 1879.


During the session of the 1877 legislature, Larned people tried to induce the legislature to slice off a segment of Pawnee Rock township from Barton county and add it to Pawnee county. Upon a final vote, however, the plan failed. The Great Bend Inland Tribune, of February 24, 1877, had the following to say regarding the proposed legislation:

If our Pawnee county friends will occupy and improve the thousands of acres of land now lying vacant in their county, and not seek to grow rich and prosperous "all of a sudden, like," by lopping off the rich and populous


portions of Barton, it would look better. It will have a very bad effect, gentlemen, on Pawnee county, when it is discovered that you need a portion of Barton to aid you in building your county buildings. If the worst comes to the worst, our relations with your county are such, that Barton will loan you a few county bonds for a court house, if you don't get too naughty.

The following petition, signed by about 100 persons (regardless of political bias), was sent to the legislature Tuesday night:

To the Honorable the Legislature of the State of Kansas.
Whereas, Pawnee county is desirous to obtain a portion of the territory now included within the county of Barton and
Whereas, when a man asks our coat we become immediately anxious to give him our cloak also and, whereas, Pawnee county has no court house for the safe keeping of her records, and the court house of Barton county is of ample dimensions for both us and them, and
Whereas, the county officers of this county are fully competent to transact the business of both counties, thereby curtailing expenditures. Therefore, the undersigned residents of Barton county, in the generosity of their noble hearts, respectfully petition your honorable body to pass an act attaching the whole of Barton county to that of Pawnee, and making Great Bend the county seat, and the officers of Barton the offIcers of said new Pawnee county.


From the Wallace County Register, Wallace, October 9, 1886.

They are preparing for a combination of towns in Sherman county. The parties chiefly interested are Itasca and Sherman Center. They would like to drag Voltaire into the net also, but as yet that has not been accomplished. The other two will probably tie up on a new site near the present site of Sherman Center and then there will be a grand roller skate parade across the prairie of the two towns. This town business is a fine thing for the fellow that wins, but it's death to hold the losing card.

There is also some skirmishing down in Greeley, and Tribune and Greeley Center are each trying to gobble the four or five little shanties that have been mustering under the proud title of "Hector." It's the name they are after we presume.

Kansas History: A Journal of the Central Plains

The latest in scholarship on Kansas history, published quarterly since 1978 by the Kansas Historical Foundation.

World War II Today: November 8

A bomb intended to kill Hitler explodes at the annual meeting of the veterans of the 1923 Nazi Putsch in Munich, but the Führer had already left the beer cellar. The German media accused Britain of orchestrating the assassination attempt on Hitler. Two British SIS agents, Major Richard Stevens and Captain S. Payne Best, are captured in Holland by the Germans.

Italians begin big offensive in Albania.

RAF bomb Munich shortly after Hitler appears there.
Army Group North advances across the Volkhov river and captures Tikhivin. Hitler claims Russian losses are 8 – 10 million, which is perhaps double the truth.

On the anniversary of the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, Hitler tells his old comrades that Stalingrad is practically in German hands, adding that he didn’t want to take that city just because it happens to bear the name of Stalin.

Operation ‘Torch’ begins with Anglo-American forces under Lieutenant General Eisenhower landing in Morocco and Algeria against minimal Vichy French resistance. Mersa Matruh is re-taken by British.

Hitler in his last speech to Nazi Party says “We shall go on fighting past 12 o’clock”.

The Eighth Army gains the heights on the Sangro less than 100 miles East of Rome.

For the first time in the history of the Third Reich, Hitler fails to appear in Munich to address “the Old Fighters” on the anniversary of the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. Speculation mounts as Himmler reads a speech in the Fuhrer’s place.

25,000 Jews are forced to walk over 100 miles in rain and snow from Budapest to the Austrian border, followed by a second forced march of 50,000 persons, ending at Mauthausen Concentration camp.


27 August 1950: First live link from the continent (Calais to London) lays the foundation for the later Eurovision network.

12 October 1951: BBC TV North transmitter opens, serving the North of England.

15 January 1952: BBC TV Scotland transmitter opens.

2 June 1953: Biggest outside broadcast to date: Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.

22 September 1955: Commercial television (ITV) starts broadcasting in the London area.

21 July 1955: BBC TV Northern Ireland transmitter opens. 95% of the UK can now receive BBC television.

October 1958: Videotape recording starts in Britain prior to this the only way to record programmes was to use film (telerecording).

Cover of Radio Times, Coronation edition, 31 May – 6 June 1953, Science Museum Group collection

July 29th, 1939 is a Saturday. It is the 210th day of the year, and in the 30th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 3rd quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 1939 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 7/29/1939, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 29/7/1939.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.


The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919, [9] but this name only became mainstream after 1933.

Terminology Edit

Between 1919 and 1933, there was no single name for the new state that gained widespread acceptance, which is the reason why the old name Deutsches Reich was officially retained, although hardly anyone used it during the Weimar period. [10] To the right of the spectrum, the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model and were appalled to see the honour of the traditional word Reich associated with it. [11] Zentrum, the Catholic Centre Party, favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat (German People's State), while on the moderate left Chancellor Friedrich Ebert's Social Democratic Party of Germany preferred Deutsche Republik (German Republic). [11] By the mid-1920s, Deutsche Republik was used by most Germans, but for the anti-democratic right the word Republik was a painful reminder of a government structure that had been imposed by foreign statesmen, along with the relocation of the seat of power to Weimar and the expulsion of Kaiser Wilhelm in the wake of massive national humiliation. [11]

The first recorded mention of the term Republik von Weimar (Republic of Weimar) came during a speech delivered by Adolf Hitler at a National Socialist German Worker's Party rally in Munich on 24 February 1929. A few weeks later, the term Weimarer Republik was first used again by Hitler in a newspaper article. [10] Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany.

The continued use of the term 'German Empire', Deutsches Reich, by the Weimar Republic . conjured up an image among educated Germans that resonated far beyond the institutional structures Bismarck created: the successor to the Roman Empire the vision of God's Empire here on earth the universality of its claim to suzerainty and a more prosaic but no less powerful sense, the concept of a German state that would include all German speakers in central Europe—'one People, one Reich, one Leader', as the Nazi slogan was to put it.

Flag and coat of arms Edit

The old black-red-gold tricolor was named as the national flag in the Weimar Constitution. [13] The coat of arms incorporated the German Imperial Eagle derived from the coat of arms under the Paulskirche Constitution of 1849. [ citation needed ]

After the dissolution of the army of the former German Empire, known as the Deutsches Heer (simply "German Army") or the Reichsheer ("Army of the Realm") in 1918 Germany's military forces consisted of irregular paramilitaries, namely the various right-wing Freikorps ("Free Corps") groups composed of veterans from the war. The Freikorps units were formally disbanded in 1920 (although continued to exist in underground groups), and on 1 January 1921, a new Reichswehr (figuratively Defence of the realm) was created.

The Treaty of Versailles limited the size of the Reichswehr to 100,000 soldiers (consisting of seven infantry divisions and three cavalry divisions), 10 armoured cars and a navy (the Reichsmarine) restricted to 36 ships in active service. No aircraft of any kind was allowed. The main advantage of this limitation, however, was that the Reichswehr could afford to pick the best recruits for service. However, with inefficient armour and no air support, the Reichswehr would have had limited combat abilities. Privates were mainly recruited from the countryside, as it was believed that young men from cities were prone to socialist behaviour, which would fray the loyalty of the privates to their conservative officers.

Although technically in service of the republic, the army was predominantly officered by conservative reactionaries who were sympathetic to right-wing organisations. Hans von Seeckt, the head of the Reichswehr, declared that the army was not loyal to the democratic republic, and would only defend it if it were in their interests. During the Kapp Putsch for example, the army refused to fire upon the rebels. The vulgar and turbulent SA was the Reichswehr's main opponent throughout its existence, openly seeking to absorb the army, and the army fired at them during the Beerhall Putsch. With the ascendance of the SS, the Reichswehr took a softer line about the Nazis, as the SS presented itself as elitist, respectable, orderly, and busy reforming and dominating the police rather than the army.

In 1935, two years after Adolf Hitler's rise to power, the Reichswehr was renamed the Wehrmacht <"Defense Force">. The Wehrmacht was the unified armed forces of the Nazi regime, which consisted of the Heer (army), the Kriegsmarine (navy) and the Luftwaffe (air force).

Background Edit

Hostilities in World War I took place between 1914 and 11 November 1918, involved mobilisation of 70 million military personnel and resulted in over 20 million military and civilian deaths [14] (exclusive of fatalities from the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic, which accounted for millions more) making it one of the largest and deadliest wars in history. [15]

After four years of war on multiple fronts in Europe and around the world, the Allied offensive began in August 1918, and the position of Germany and the Central Powers deteriorated, [16] [17] leading them to sue for peace. Initial offers were rejected by the Allied Powers, and Germany's position became more desperate. Awareness of impending military defeat sparked the German Revolution, proclamation of a republic on 9 November 1918, [b] [18] : 90 the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II, [19] [18] : 85–86 and German surrender, [ citation needed ] marking the end of Imperial Germany and the beginning of the Weimar Republic.

November Revolution (1918–1919) Edit

In October 1918, the constitution of the German Empire was reformed to give more powers to the elected parliament. On 29 October, rebellion broke out in Kiel among sailors. There, sailors, soldiers, and workers began electing Workers' and Soldiers' Councils (Arbeiter und Soldatenräte) modelled after the Soviets of the Russian Revolution of 1917. The revolution spread throughout Germany, and participants seized military and civil powers in individual cities. The power takeover was achieved everywhere without loss of life.

At the time, the Socialist movement which represented mostly labourers was split among two major left-wing parties: the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD), which called for immediate peace negotiations and favoured a soviet-style command economy, and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) also known as "Majority" Social Democratic Party of Germany (MSPD), which supported the war effort and favoured a parliamentary system. The rebellion caused great fear in the establishment and in the middle classes because of the Soviet-style aspirations of the councils. To centrist and conservative citizens, the country looked to be on the verge of a communist revolution.

By 7 November, the revolution had reached Munich, resulting in King Ludwig III of Bavaria fleeing. The MSPD decided to make use of their support at the grassroots and put themselves at the front of the movement, demanding that Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicate. When he refused, Prince Max of Baden simply announced that he had done so and frantically attempted to establish a regency under another member of the House of Hohenzollern. Gustav Noske, a self-appointed military expert in the MSPD, was sent to Kiel to prevent any further unrest and took on the task of controlling the mutinous sailors and their supporters in the Kiel barracks. The sailors and soldiers, inexperienced in matters of revolutionary combat, welcomed him as an experienced politician and allowed him to negotiate a settlement, thus defusing the initial anger of the revolutionaries in uniform.

On 9 November 1918, the "German Republic" was proclaimed by MSPD member Philipp Scheidemann at the Reichstag building in Berlin, to the fury of Friedrich Ebert, the leader of the MSPD, who thought that the question of monarchy or republic should be answered by a national assembly. Two hours later, a "Free Socialist Republic" was proclaimed, 2 km (1.2 mi) away, at the Berliner Stadtschloss. The proclamation was issued by Karl Liebknecht, co-leader (with Rosa Luxemburg) of the communist Spartakusbund (Spartacus League), a group of a few hundred supporters of the Russian revolution that had allied itself with the USPD in 1917. In a legally questionable act, Imperial Chancellor (Reichskanzler) Prince Max of Baden transferred his powers to Friedrich Ebert, who, shattered by the monarchy's fall, reluctantly accepted. In view of the mass support for more radical reforms among the workers' councils, a coalition government called "Council of the People's Deputies" (Rat der Volksbeauftragten) was established, consisting of three MSPD and three USPD members. Led by Ebert for the MSPD and Hugo Haase for the USPD it sought to act as a provisional cabinet of ministers. But the power question was unanswered. Although the new government was confirmed by the Berlin worker and soldier council, it was opposed by the Spartacus League.

On 11 November 1918, an armistice was signed at Compiègne by German representatives. It effectively ended military operations between the Allies and Germany. It amounted to German capitulation, without any concessions by the Allies the naval blockade would continue until complete peace terms were agreed.

From November 1918 to January 1919, Germany was governed by the "Council of the People's Deputies", under the leadership of Ebert and Haase. The Council issued a large number of decrees that radically shifted German policies. It introduced the eight-hour workday, domestic labour reform, works councils, agricultural labour reform, right of civil-service associations, local municipality social welfare relief (split between Reich and States) and national health insurance, reinstatement of demobilised workers, protection from arbitrary dismissal with appeal as a right, regulated wage agreement, and universal suffrage from 20 years of age in all types of elections—local and national. Ebert called for a "National Congress of Councils" (Reichsrätekongress), which took place from 16 to 20 December 1918, and in which the MSPD had the majority. Thus, Ebert was able to institute elections for a provisional National Assembly that would be given the task of writing a democratic constitution for parliamentary government, marginalising the movement that called for a socialist republic.

To ensure his fledgling government maintained control over the country, Ebert made an agreement with the OHL, now led by Ludendorff's successor General Wilhelm Groener. The 'Ebert–Groener pact' stipulated that the government would not attempt to reform the army so long as the army swore to protect the state. On the one hand, this agreement symbolised the acceptance of the new government by the military, assuaging concern among the middle classes on the other hand, it was thought contrary to working-class interests by left wing social democrats and communists, and was also opposed by the far right who believed democracy would make Germany weaker. The new Reichswehr armed forces, limited by the Treaty of Versailles to 100,000 army soldiers and 15,000 sailors, remained fully under the control of the German officer class, despite their nominal re-organisation.

The Executive Council of the Workers’ and Soldiers’ Councils, a coalition that included Majority Socialists, Independent Socialists, workers, and soldiers, implemented a programme of progressive social change, introducing reforms such as the eight-hour workday, the releasing of political prisoners, the abolition of press censorship, increases in workers’ old-age, sick and unemployment benefits, and the bestowing upon labour the unrestricted right to organise into unions. [20]

A number of other reforms were carried out in Germany during the revolutionary period. It was made harder for estates to sack workers and prevent them from leaving when they wanted to under the Provisional Act for Agricultural Labour of 23 November 1918 the normal period of notice for management, and for most resident labourers, was set at six weeks. In addition, a supplementary directive of December 1918 specified that female (and child) workers were entitled to a fifteen-minute break if they worked between four and six hours, thirty minutes for workdays lasting six to eight hours, and one hour for longer days. [21] A decree on 23 December 1918 established committees (composed of workers' representatives "in their relation to the employer") to safeguard the rights of workers. The right to bargain collectively was also established, while it was made obligatory "to elect workers’ committees on estates and establish conciliation committees". A decree on 3 February 1919 removed the right of employers to acquire exemption for domestic servants and agricultural workers. [22]

With the Verordnung of 3 February 1919, the Ebert government reintroduced the original structure of the health insurance boards according to an 1883 law, with one-third employers and two-thirds members (i.e. workers). [23] From 28 June 1919 health insurance committees became elected by workers themselves. [24] The Provisional Order of January 1919 concerning agricultural labour conditions fixed 2,900 hours as a maximum per year, distributed as eight, ten, and eleven hours per day in four-monthly periods. [25] A code of January 1919 bestowed upon land-labourers the same legal rights that industrial workers enjoyed, while a bill ratified that same year obliged the States to set up agricultural settlement associations which, as noted by Volker Berghahn, "were endowed with the priority right of purchase of farms beyond a specified size". [26] In addition, undemocratic public institutions were abolished, involving, as noted by one writer, the disappearance "of the Prussian Upper House, the former Prussian Lower House that had been elected in accordance with the three-class suffrage, and the municipal councils that were also elected on the class vote". [27]

A rift developed between the MSPD and USPD after Ebert called upon the OHL (Supreme Army Command) for troops to put down a mutiny by a leftist military unit on 23/24 December 1918, in which members of the Volksmarinedivision (People's Army Division) had captured the city's garrison commander Otto Wels and occupied the Reichskanzlei (Reich Chancellery) where the "Council of the People's Deputies" was situated. The ensuing street fighting left several dead and injured on both sides. The USPD leaders were outraged by what they believed was treachery by the MSPD, which, in their view, had joined with the anti-communist military to suppress the revolution. Thus, the USPD left the "Council of the People's Deputies" after only seven weeks. On 30 December, the split deepened when the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) was formed out of a number of radical left-wing groups, including the left wing of the USPD and the Spartacus League group.

In January, the Spartacus League and others in the streets of Berlin made more armed attempts to establish communism, known as the Spartacist uprising. Those attempts were put down by paramilitary Freikorps units consisting of volunteer soldiers. Bloody street fights culminated in the beating and shooting deaths of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht after their arrests on 15 January. [28] With the affirmation of Ebert, those responsible were not tried before a court martial, leading to lenient sentences, which made Ebert unpopular among radical leftists.

The National Assembly elections took place on 19 January 1919. (It was the first time women were allowed to vote.) [29] In this time, the radical left-wing parties, including the USPD and KPD, were barely able to get themselves organised, leading to a solid majority of seats for the MSPD moderate forces. To avoid the ongoing fights in Berlin, the National Assembly convened in the city of Weimar, giving the future Republic its unofficial name. The Weimar Constitution created a republic under a parliamentary republic system with the Reichstag elected by proportional representation. The democratic parties obtained a solid 80% of the vote.

During the debates in Weimar, fighting continued. A Soviet republic was declared in Munich, but was quickly put down by Freikorps and remnants of the regular army. The fall of the Munich Soviet Republic to these units, many of which were situated on the extreme right, resulted in the growth of far-right movements and organisations in Bavaria, including Organization Consul, the Nazi Party, and societies of exiled Russian Monarchists. Sporadic fighting continued to flare up around the country. In eastern provinces, forces loyal to Germany's fallen Monarchy fought the republic, while militias of Polish nationalists fought for independence: Great Poland Uprising in Provinz Posen and three Silesian uprisings in Upper Silesia.

Germany lost the war because the country ran out of allies and its economic resources were running out support among the population began to crumble in 1916 and by mid-1918 there was support for the war only among the die-hard monarchists and conservatives. The decisive blow came with the entry of the United States into the conflict, which made its vast industrial resources available to the beleaguered Allies. By late summer 1918 the German reserves were exhausted while fresh American troops arrived in France at the rate of 10,000 a day. Retreat and defeat were at hand, and the Army told the Kaiser to abdicate for it could no longer support him. Although in retreat, the German armies were still on French and Belgian territory when the war ended on 11 November. Ludendorf and Hindenburg soon proclaimed that it was the defeatism of the civilian population that had made defeat inevitable. The die-hard nationalists then blamed the civilians for betraying the army and the surrender. This was the "stab-in-the-back myth" that was unceasingly propagated by the right in the 1920s and ensured that many monarchists and conservatives would refuse to support the government of what they called the "November criminals". [30] [ need quotation to verify ] [31]

Years of crisis (1919–1923) Edit

Burden from the First World War Edit

In the four years following the First World War, the situation for German civilians remained dire. The severe food shortages improved little to none up until 1923. Many German civilians expected life to return to prewar normality following the removal of the naval blockade in June 1919. Instead, the struggles induced by the First World War persisted for the decade following. Throughout the war German officials made rash decisions to combat the growing hunger of the nation, most of which were highly unsuccessful. Examples include the nationwide pig slaughter, Schweinemord, in 1915. The rationale behind exterminating the population of swine was to decrease the use of potatoes and turnips for animal consumption, transitioning all foods toward human consumption.

In 1922, now three years after the German signing of the Treaty of Versailles, meat consumption in the country had not increased since the war era. 22 kg per person per year was still less than half of the 52 kg statistic in 1913, before the onset of the war. German citizens felt the food shortages even deeper than during the war, because the reality of the nation contrasted so starkly with their expectations. The burdens of the First World War lightened little in the immediate years following, and with the onset of the Treaty of Versailles, coupled by mass inflation, Germany still remained in a crisis. The continuity of pain showed the Weimar authority in a negative light, and public opinion was one of the main sources behind its failure. [32]

October 17th, 1991 is a Thursday. It is the 290th day of the year, and in the 42nd week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 4th quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 1991 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 10/17/1991, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 17/10/1991.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.


Family and early life Edit

Georg Elser (the name normally used to refer to him) was born in Hermaringen, Württemberg, to Ludwig Elser and Maria Müller. His parents married one year after his birth, and Maria moved to Königsbronn to live with Ludwig on his smallholding. His father was a timber merchant, while his mother worked on the farm. Georg was often left to care for his five younger siblings: Friederike (born 1904), Maria (born 1906), Ludwig (born 1909), Anna (born 1910) and Leonard (born 1913). He attended elementary school in Königsbronn from 1910 to 1917 and showed ability in drawing, penmanship and mathematics. His childhood was marred by his father's heavy drinking. Elser recalled in his interrogation by the Gestapo in 1939 how his father habitually came home late from work drunk. [1] [ dubious – discuss ] [ non-primary source needed ]

Career and social life Edit

In 1917, Elser worked half a year assisting in his father's business. Seeking independence, he started an apprenticeship as a lathe operator at the smelter in Königsbronn, but was forced to quit for health reasons. Between 1919 and 1922, he was apprenticed to master woodworker Robert Sapper in Königsbronn. After topping his class at Heidenheim Trade School, he worked in the furniture factory of Paul Rieder in Aalen. In 1925, he left home to briefly work at Wachter woodworking company in the small community of Bernried, near Tettnang. Exploring along Lake Constance on foot, he arrived at Friedrichshafen, where he found employment shaping wooden propellers for the fledgling aircraft manufacturer Dornier. [1] [2] [ full citation needed ]

In August 1925, a work-friend enticed Elser to go with him to Konstanz to work in a clock factory. Due to lack of work, the clock factory closed down, was sold, then reopened as the Schuckmann Clock Factory. Elser was re-employed, but, along with the other employees, he was dismissed when the factory mysteriously burned down after the owner had unsuccessfully tried to sell the failing business. During this period, Elser shared a room with a Communist co-worker who convinced him to join the Red Front Fighters League. He also joined a traditional dress and dance group (Trachtenverein). In 1929, he found work with Schönholzer, a small woodworking company in Bottighofen, requiring Elser to cross the border daily into Switzerland. The work ran out within six months, however, and he was let go. [1] [3]

Around this time Elser met a waitress, Mathilde Niedermann. When she became pregnant, he drove her to Geneva, Switzerland. Mathilde was found to be in the fourth month of pregnancy, precluding a legal abortion. The child was born, a boy named Manfred. When Elser left Mathilde, he was left with child support payments that often surpassed his weekly wage. [1]

In 1930, Elser began commuting daily by ferry from Konstanz to work in the small Rothmund clock factory in Meersburg where he made housings for wall and table clocks. At the Kreuzlingen Free Temperance Union he started a friendship with a seamstress, Hilda Lang. Between May and August 1932, after Rothmund closed down, he lived with several families in Meersburg doing odd carpentry jobs. [1] [3]

In August 1932, Elser returned to Königsbronn after receiving a call for help from his mother. His alcoholic father, often violent and abusive towards her, was now heavily in debt. Elser assisted his parents in their work and supplemented his income by making furniture in a home workshop until his father was forced to sell the family property in late 1935. Elser escaped the grim family situation with music, playing flute, accordion, bass and the zither. He joined the Zither Club in Königsbronn in early 1933. [1]

At around this time, Elser joined a hiking club where he met Elsa Härlen. He moved to lodge in the Härlens' basement, building kitchen cabinets, kitchen chairs and a doll's house for Elsa. Their love affair in the spring of 1936 led to her separation from her husband in 1937 and divorce in 1938. [3]

In 1936, Elser worked with a carpenter named Grupp in Königsbronn, making desks and installing windows, but soon gave up the job, believing the pay was too low. He began working as a labourer at the Waldenmaier armament factory in Heidenheim, commuting by train or by bike from Königsbronn. While working there, he began a friendship with a fellow employee, Maria Schmauder. [1]

In 1938, Elser's parents bought half of a double house together with their son Leonhard and his wife. Elser felt cheated, and was forced to move out of the house, severing ties with his family except for his sister Maria in Stuttgart. In May 1939, he moved in with the Schmauder family in nearby Schnaitheim. [3]

At Waldenmaier, Elser worked in the shipping department and had access to many parts of the plant, including the "special department" where fuses and detonators were produced. After his arrest and confession, Elser told the Gestapo: "Before the decision to take my action in the fall of 1938, I had stolen neither parts nor powder from the factory." [1]

Ideology and religion Edit

Elser was a carpenter and cabinet maker by trade and a member of the left-leaning Federation of Woodworkers Union. He also joined the Red Front Fighters' Association, although he told his interrogators in 1939 that he attended a political assembly no more than three times while a member. He also stated that he voted for the Communist Party until 1933, as he considered the KPD to be the best defender of workers' interests. [1] There is evidence that Elser opposed Nazism from the beginning of the regime in 1933 he refused to perform the Hitler salute, did not join others in listening to Hitler's speeches broadcast on the radio, and did not vote in the elections or referendums during the Nazi era. [3]

Elser met Josef Schurr, a Communist from Schnaitheim, at a Woodworkers Union meeting in Königsbronn in 1933. Elser had extreme views, supported by a letter that Schurr sent to a newspaper in Ulm in 1947 which stated that Elser "was always extremely interested in some act of violence against Hitler and his cronies. He always called Hitler a 'gypsy'—one just had to look at his criminal face." [3]

Elser's parents were Protestant, and he attended church with his mother as a child, though his attendance lapsed. His church attendance increased during 1939, after he had decided to carry out the assassination attempt, either at a Protestant or Roman Catholic church. He claimed that church attendance and the recitation of the Lord's Prayer calmed him. He told his arresting officers: "I believe in the survival of the soul after death, and I also believed that I would not go to heaven if I had not had an opportunity to prove that I wanted good. I also wanted to prevent by my act even greater bloodshed." [1]

Motive Edit

During four days of interrogation in Berlin (19–22 November 1939), Elser articulated his motive to his interrogators:

I considered how to improve the conditions of the workers and avoid a war. For this I was not encouraged by anyone . Even from Radio Moscow I never heard that the German government and the regime must be overthrown. I reasoned the situation in Germany could only be modified by a removal of the current leadership, I mean Hitler, Goering and Goebbels . I did not want to eliminate Nazism . I was merely of the opinion that a moderation in the policy objectives will occur through the elimination of these three men . The idea of eliminating the leadership came to me in the fall of 1938 . I thought to myself that this is only possible if the leadership is together at a rally. From the daily press I gathered that the next meeting of leaders was happening on 8 and 9 November 1938 in Munich in the Bürgerbräukeller. [1]

Five years later in Dachau concentration camp, SS officer Lechner claimed Elser revealed his motive to him:

I had to do it because, for his whole life, Hitler has meant the downfall of Germany . don't think that I'm some kind of dyed-in-the-wool Communist — I'm not. I have some sympathy for Ernst Thälmann, but getting rid of Hitler just became an obsession of mine . But, as you can see — I got caught, and now I have to pay for it. I would have preferred it if they executed me right away. [3]

In order to find out how best to implement his assassination plan, Elser travelled to Munich by train on 8 November 1938, the day of Hitler's annual speech on the anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch. Elser was not able to enter the Bürgerbräukeller until 10:30 p.m., when the crowd had dispersed. He stayed until midnight before going back to his lodging. The next morning, he returned to Königsbronn. [1] On the following day, 10 November, the anti-Jewish violence of the Kristallnacht took place in Munich. [4] "In the following weeks I slowly concocted in my mind that it was best to pack explosives in the pillar directly behind the speaker's podium," Elser told his interrogators a year later. He continued to work in the Waldenmaier armament factory in Heidenheim and systematically stole explosives, hiding packets of powder in his bedroom. Realising he needed the exact dimensions of the column to build his bomb he returned to Munich, staying 4–12 April 1939. He took a camera with him, a Christmas gift from Maria Schmauder. He had just become unemployed due to an argument with a factory supervisor. [1]

In April–May 1939, Elser found a labouring job at the Vollmer quarry in Königsbronn. While there, he collected an arsenal of 105 blasting cartridges and 125 detonators, causing him to admit to his interrogators, "I knew two or three detonators were sufficient for my purposes, but I thought the surplus will increase the explosive effect." Living with the Schmauder family in Schnaitheim he made many sketches, telling his hosts he was working on an "invention". [1]

In July, in a secluded orchard owned by his parents, Elser tested several prototypes of his bomb. Clock movements given to him in lieu of wages when leaving Rothmund in Meersburg in 1932 and a car indicator "winker" were incorporated into the "infernal machine". In August, after a bout of sickness, he left for Munich. Powder, explosives, a battery and detonators filled the false bottom of his wooden suitcase. Other boxes contained his clothes, clock movements and the tools of his trade. [1]

The Bürgerbräukeller Edit

Elser arrived in Munich on 5 August 1939. Using his real name, he rented a room in the apartments of two unsuspecting couples, at first staying with the Baumanns and from 1 September, Alfons and Rosa Lehmann. He soon became a regular at the Bürgerbräukeller restaurant for his evening meal. As before, he was able to enter the adjoining Bürgerbräukeller Hall before the doors were locked at about 10:30 p.m. [1]

Over the next two months, Elser stayed all night inside the Bürgerbräukeller 30 to 35 times. Working on the gallery level and using a flashlight dimmed with a blue handkerchief, he started by installing a secret door in the timber panelling to a pillar behind the speaker's rostrum. After removing the plaster behind the door, he hollowed out a chamber in the brickwork for his bomb. Normally completing his work around 2:00–3:00 a.m., he dozed in the storeroom off the gallery until the doors were unlocked at about 6:30 a.m. He then left via a rear door, often carrying a small suitcase filled with debris. [1]

Security was relatively lax at the Bürgerbräukeller. Christian Weber, a veteran from the Beer Hall Putsch and the Munich city councillor, was responsible. [3] However, from the beginning of September, after the outbreak of war with Poland, Elser was aware of the presence of air raid wardens and two "free-running dogs" in the building. [1]

While he worked at night in the Bürgerbräukeller, Elser built his device during the day. He purchased extra parts, including sound insulation, from local hardware stores and became friends with the local master woodworker, Brög, who allowed him use of his workshop. [1]

January 9th, 1939 is a Monday. It is the 9th day of the year, and in the 2nd week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 1st quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 1939 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 1/9/1939, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 9/1/1939.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.

November 20th, 1942 is a Friday. It is the 324th day of the year, and in the 47th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 4th quarter of the year. There are 30 days in this month. 1942 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 11/20/1942, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 20/11/1942.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.

Watch the video: Silent Hunter 3 - Patrol #4 November 1939 part 2 - Поход 4 ноябрь 1939 часть 2 (August 2022).