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Controversial Claim by Geologist: Mysterious tracks in Turkey caused by unknown civilization millions of years ago

Controversial Claim by Geologist: Mysterious tracks in Turkey caused by unknown civilization millions of years ago


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In what is sure to cause controversy, a researcher has claimed that the mysterious and ancient ruts which crisscross the Phrygian Valley of Turkey were caused by an unknown and intelligent race between 12 and 14 million years ago.

Dr. Alexander Koltypin , geologist and a director of the Natural Science Scientific Research Centre at Moscow's International Independent University of Ecology and Politology has recently completed investigations at the site in Anatolia which is marked with strange ruts, described as “petrified tracking ruts in rocky tuffaceous deposits’ made from compacted volcanic ash,” according to MailOnline.

Repeated travel with vehicles eventually cut into the soft, volcanic rock in Turkey. Credit: Alexander Koltypin, Dopotopa.com

The tracks cut across the landscape of the Phrygia Valley, dating back to various historical periods, according to conventional academia. The earliest roads are thought to have been made during the Hittite Empire (circa 1600 BC – 1178 BC). As time went on, paths were cut deeply into the soft rock by the Phrygians, then by the Greeks, and Alexander the Great with his armies. They eventually became part of the Roman road network, writes Culture Routes in Turkey .

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Relief in basalt depicting a battle chariot, Carchemish, 9th century BC; Late Hittite style with Assyrian influence. Did such vehicles leave the tracks in the ancient Phrygia Valley? (CC BY 2.0 )

Koltypin and colleagues have examined the rocky fields interlaced with deep grooves, and have suggested that it was indeed vehicles which caused the tracks, but not lightweight carts or chariots. Instead he suggests the “unknown antediluvian all-terrain vehicles” were huge and heavy. In addition, he dates them back to approximately 14 million years ago, and claims they were driven by an unknown civilization.

He told MailOnline, “All these rocky fields were covered with the ruts left some millions of years ago....we are not talking about human beings.”

The geologist says with certainty that the ruts are prehistoric without a doubt, due to the weathering and cracks observed.

“The methodology of specifying the age of volcanic rocks is very well studied and worked out,” Koltypin said.

The deep tracks run along the landscape, some reportedly as deep as 3 feet (1 meter). Credit: Alexander Koltypin, Dopotopa.com

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The scientist notes that the distance between each pair of tracks remains consistent, and that the measurement fit that between the wheels of a modern vehicles. However, the tracks are much too deep for today’s cars, raising more questions about what sort of transport device was being used.

The deepest ruts are three feet (one meter), and on the walls of these ruts are horizontal scratches, very much appearing to have been left by the ends of axels poking out of ancient wheels.

Photograph showing the scratch marks along the side of the tracks. Were these caused by ancient axels? Credit: Alexander Koltypin, Dopotopa.com

News site Express reports that Koltypin believes the deep channels were cut into the soft, wet soil and rock due to the sheer weight of the large prehistoric vehicles. He says, “And later these ruts - and all the surface around - just petrified and secured all the evidence. Such cases are well known to geologists, for example, the footprints of dinosaurs were ‘naturally preserved’ in a similar way.”

The prehistoric mysterious vehicle tracks as found in the Phrygian Valley of Turkey, with a modern car for scale. Credit: Alexander Koltypin, Dopotopa.com

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Koltypin is aware that his claims are controversial, but says mainstream academia will not address the subject matter as it will “ruin all their classic theories.”

“I think we are seeing the signs of the civilization which existed before the classic creation of this world. Maybe the creatures of that pre-civilization were not like modern human beings,” he proposes.

Very similar interesting and mysterious tracks exist in other locations of the world, notably in the Maltese archipelago. These ancient grooves continue to puzzle researchers. Some of the strange tracks of Misrah Ghar il-Kbir deliberately plunge off cliffs or continue off land and into the ocean. It is not yet known who made the tracks, or why.

Cart Ruts at Misraћ Gћar il-Kbir, Malta, so similar to the tracks in Turkey. ( CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Like the channels at Malta, questions remain surrounding the deep tracks cut into the stone in the Phrygian Valley.

Koltypin’s research work continues as he investigates anomalous sites, but it will likely be some time before established academia embraces his unconventional theories.

Featured Image: Mysterious ancient tracks dissect the landscape in the Phrygian Valley of Turkey. What is the truth about who made these tracks, and how? Credit: Alexander Koltypin, Dopotopa.com

By Liz Leafloor


Ancient ‘Alien’ vehicle tracks?

According to Dr. Koltypin, these traces were left behind by vehicles 14 million years ago

The first place on my list are the mysterious tracks, seen around the world which have puzzled archaeologists for decades. These enigmatic tracks are visible in several countries including Turkey, Malta, and Spain.

According to Dr. Alexander Koltypin –a geologist and director of the Natural Science Research Center at Moscow’s International Independent University of Ecology and Politology—, these were left by heavy all-terrain vehicles some 12 million to 14 million years ago. This is an extremely controversial theory since mainstream scholars claim that our civilization dates back several thousand and not millions of years. On his website, Koltypin said the wheel tracks cross over faults formed in the middle and late Miocene period (about 12 to 14 million years ago), suggesting they are older than those faults.


They mystery with the 󈫼 million years old” traces of gigantic vehicles

These peculiar landmarks are found in the Phrygian Valley, according to the researcher, they were created by an Ancient civilization highly technological and unknown today.

These ancient furrows discovered in Phrygian Valley have left the Dr. Alexander Koltypin, geologist of National Science Scientific Research Center in Moscow, in complete amazement.

The geologist believes that this construction could have been created by an intelligent race more than 12 million years ago.

The furrows in the Phrygian Valley have been closely examined, and one of the theories provided is that they were made by ATVs, much like those used today. But how could these clues, more than 12 million years ago, have been made with artifacts that in our opinion had not yet been invented? or better yet, Did an ancient and unknown civilization operate this type of vehicle?

The geologist Dr. Alexander Koltypin believes that these mysterious furrow-like marks in the Phrygian Valley in central Turkey were made by an intelligent race 12 and 14 million years ago.

“We can assume that older vehicles drove their heavy wheels on soft ground, perhaps a wet surface,” he said.

Inspections have found that the distance between the grooves is approximately the same as that left by current vehicles. However, there is one thing that does not match, these grooves seem to have been made by something much heavier than modern common transport.

These tracks have for the most part, some impressive three feet deep.

In addition to the deep grooves, horizontal grooves have been found along their interior walls. These notches inside the grooves or tracks could well have been made by some kind of axle, which adds further mystery to the matter.

Dr. Koltypin was aware that this finding would be too controversial and cause quite a stir.

Koltypin stated the following:

I think we are seeing the signs of a civilization that existed before the classical creation of this world. Perhaps the creatures of that pre-civilization were not like modern human beings. These ancient clues can demonstrate the existence of ancient civilizations, yet are often ignored by scientists. “

Although many detractors of Dr. Koltypin’s theories have emerged, in reality, Phrygian Valley is not the only place where these ancient roads are found. Other areas, such as the maltese archipelago have tracks that run along the cliffs and others that lead to the ocean.

These tracks in Malta have the same amount of controversial theories. In the following video you can find more information about it.

Despite the fact that conventional archeology does not pay attention to these impressive discoveries, Koltypin still trusts his controversial theories.

It is possible that in the future, history will reveal many other findings that show once and for all that we are not the first to have advanced technology and that before us, other sophisticated humanities existed.


56 most mysterious places on Earth

Bermuda Triangle

Planet Earth is a wondrous place that never ceases to amaze with its majestic natural wonders and jaw-dropping man-made marvels. But our planet isn’t without its fair share of mysteries, either. If you’re fascinated by places with mythical origins or unexplained phenomena that will give you goosebumps, you’ll be intrigued by these enigmatic spots around the world.

1 | The Door To Hell In Turkmenistan

The Gate to Hell , a crater in Turkmenistan in the middle of the Karakum Desert near the Darvaza oasis, where escaping natural gas has been burning since 1971 © Wikipedia

The Door to Hell, or also know as the Gates of Hell, is situated near the small town of Derweze in Turkmenistan. In the 1960s, the Soviet engineers were drilling for a substantial oil field site when they encountered a very large cavern underground filled with methane and other poisonous gases.

Soon after the preliminary survey found the natural gas pocket, the ground beneath the drilling rig and camp collapsed into a wide crater and the rig was buried with no casualties. The crater was 226 feet in diameter and its depth was 98 feet. Later in the early 1970s, geologists intentionally set it on fire to prevent the dangerous releases of poisonous gases, expecting it to burn off in a few hours. But strangely, the gas is still burning to this day, and no one knows when it will stop.

2 | Underwater Crop Circle

The circles, scientists say, are actually nests created by male pufferfish, which spend about ten days carefully constructing and decorating the structures to woo females © Yoji Ookata

Once regarded to be objects of high intrigue, the underwater crop circles have been explained to be a creative demonstration of ‘pufferfishes’ quests for finding their mates. These underwater circles have circumferences of over six feet and are often decorated with shells and other decorative items found at the bottom of the sea. The underwater crop circles were discovered under the waters of the Japanese island of Anami Oshima. Though, some consider these ocean mysteries as the work of aliens.

3 | The Convergence Of Baltic and North Seas

The Convergence Of Baltic And North Seas © YouTube

This oceanic phenomenon has been a highly debated topic. The convergent point of the North and the Baltic Seas occurs in the province of Skagen in Denmark. However, because of the differing rates of densities of the seas’ waters, the sea waters continue to remain separate despite their convergence.

4 | Glass Beach, California, USA

Glass Beach, Fort Bragg California © Wikipedia

Glass Beach is a beach in MacKerricher State Park near Fort Bragg, California that is abundant in sea glass created from years of dumping garbage into an area of coastline near the northern part of the town. Located in Northern California among the rocky coastline is what can be considered the Mecca for sea glass collectors around the world. Its otherworldly shoreline is now littered with smooth shards of sea glass.

5 | Underwater City In Shicheng, China

Underwater City In Shicheng, China

This incredible underwater city, trapped in time, is 1341 years old. Shicheng, or Lion City, is located in the Zhejiang province in eastern China. It was submerged in 1959 during the construction of the Xin’an River Hydropower Station. The water protects the city from wind and rain erosion, so it has remained sealed underwater in relatively good condition.

6 | The Great Pyramids Of Egypt

The Great Pyramids Of Giza © Pixabay

For centuries, the Great Pyramids of Giza have been the centre for all ancient mysteries. From advanced civilizations to secret chambers to alien conspiracy all extraordinary claims are rotating around it for decades. But which is little known about the site is it’s terribly haunted. Many eye witness reports have recorded a man and his three children, dressed in clothes typical of the 1920s, roaming around the Great Pyramids looking for something. As we are telling a ghost story here, we’re going to assume that he’s searching for his wife and mother of his children.

The much creepier story surrounding the haunting of the pyramids is the emergence of the ghost of Pharaoh Khufu himself who is the proud owner of one of them. Dressed in traditional ancient Egyptian armour, he appears at midnight and walks the streets, visiting houses and telling their inhabitants to leave the area. If ghosts have unfinished business to linger around, Khufu has been very patient for many millennia now. Read More

7 | The Valley Of The Kings, Egypt

The Valley Of The Kings, Egypt © Pixabay

Hosting a few hundred dead Pharaohs for the past 5000 years, the rumour that the Valley of the Kings is haunted should come as a surprise to no one. A pharaoh in a chariot has been seen roaming the valley as well as perceptions of strange noises such as footsteps, screams and shuffling without a source. Watchmen believe these are the spirits of the deceased whose tombs have been desecrated. Now they are looking for their treasures which are, largely, crammed in the Egyptian Museum a few hundred miles away.

On top of that, the “Mummy’s curse” has made Tutankhamen’s gravesite a creepy place. Upon financing the discovery of the site, Lord Carnation died before he could harvest the fruits of his investment due to an infected mosquito bite on his neck. The later inspection of Tutankhamen found a similar wound on the young Pharaoh. Howard Carter, the archaeologist who found the site, died due to chemicals used in the chamber after it was discovered. Hence, his greatest discovery was also his doom, spreading more superstition over the apparent curse on the tomb. These accounts are super scary albeit highly controversial.

8 | World’s Largest Cave, Son Doong, In Malaysia

The massive Second Doline in Hang Son Doong is so large that trees grow inside © Wikipedia

The Son Doong Cave was found in 1991 by a local man named Ho Khanh. In 2009, a group of British cavers led by Howard Limbert explored the cave’s interior, only then realizing that it was possibly the greatest cave in the world. Son Doong Cave has dethroned Malaysia’s Deer Cave as the world’s largest.

The water and limestone that carved it over millions of slow, patient-years have created spectacular and unique formations. Occasional collapses in the roof have allowed underground jungle ecosystems to form, and with them, all-new species that have never been seen anywhere else. Rare cave pearls, ancient fossils, and towering stalactites form around a river running through the caves, which are so large that they form their own clouds.

Now that the caves have been thoroughly explored, the government has granted tour operators permission to host treks through the caves, which have already begun operating this summer.

9 | Koh-i-Chiltan Peak, Balochistan

Chiltan Mountain in Balochistan, Pakistan © Flickr

The tallest peak in the Chiltan range is said to be haunted by the ghosts of 40 dead children. The local legend of the peak is about a couple who once left 40 babies on the peak to survive on their own. It is these children that they say can be heard crying in despair in the night when the winds blow strong, carrying down their voices calling to people to come up.

The story of the couple is fairly simple, poor and without a child, they sought the help of many clerics and healers. One such cleric’s son said he would be able to help them even though others couldn’t. He spent many nights praying and the couple was not only blessed with one but forty children. Being unable to care for so many the husband decided to leave 39 on the mountain top to fend for themselves. They say the wife was drawn to the wails of the 39 and taking the 40th child she saw that all were alive. She left her last child there to tell her husband the good news. Upon returning, all of them were gone.

10 | Jatinga Valley, Assam, India

Jatinga Valley, Assam, India © unsplash

Having a population of around 2500, this village is popular worldwide for its unexplained phenomenon of bird suicides. Most of the migratory birds visiting the area never leave the village, dropping dead on the streets for no explainable reason. The case gets even more inscrutable as these birds always ascend to their death between 06:00 PM and 09:30 PM on the moonless nights of September and October.

These mass suicides only occur on a specific one mile stretch of land, and this phenomenon is said to have occurred year after year without a break for more than a century. Many theories have been put forward by scientists to explain this phenomenon, the most popular one being that these birds are attracted towards village lights which later confuse them, along with many others. Though, none of them have yet been able to prove any of the theories behind this phenomenon, that’s why it continues to haunt and intrigue the minds of the residents and travellers just the same. Read More

11 | The Dolls’ Island

The Dolls’ Island, Mexico City

Xochimilco, a district just south of Mexico City, is home to a number of artificial islands and canals, one of which was owned by a caretaker named Julian Santana Barrera. When Barrera discovered the body of a young girl in one of the canals near his island, he began to collect dolls to hang around the island to ward off any evil spirits, and to make the ghost of the young girl happy. The island, known as La Isla de las Munecas ― the Island of Dolls ― is now visited by thousands of tourists a year, who bring dolls to carry on Barrera’s tradition. Read More

12 | Bermuda Triangle

Bermuda Triangle

The Bermuda Triangle is a mythical section of the Atlantic Ocean roughly bounded by Miami, Bermuda and Puerto Rico where dozens of ships and airplanes have disappeared. Unexplained circumstances surround some of these accidents, including one in which the pilots of a squadron of U.S. Navy bombers became disoriented while flying over the area the planes were never found.

Other boats and planes have seemingly vanished from the area in good weather without even radioing distress messages. But although myriad fanciful theories have been proposed regarding the Bermuda Triangle, none of them prove that mysterious disappearances occur more frequently there than in other well-travelled sections of the ocean. In fact, people navigate the area every day without incident. Read More

13 | Bhangarh Fort Of Rajasthan, India

Bhangarh Fort, Alwar, Rajasthan

According to the stories, an evil wizard named Singhiya fell in love with the Princess of Bhangarh and cursed the fort after she rejected him. The year following the curse, both war and famine broke out in the area, leading to the death of the princess. Tourists are not allowed to enter the building after sunset and before sunrise, so as not to disturb the ghosts of Singhiya and his victims, who haunt Bhangarh Fort. Read More

14 | The Shennongjia Forest, China

Virgin forest in Shennongjia Forestry District, Hubei, China © Wikipedia

The Shennongjia Forest is a huge and mysterious area of woodland that covers over 800,000 acres in the eastern Hubei Province. It also supposedly provides a home to the “man-monkey of Shennongjia,” better known as the “Yeren” or Chinese Bigfoot. There have been numerous sightings of this creature, with hair samples and footprints also found. In addition, Shennongjia is supposed to be the home of several other monsters, and is a UFO hot-spot. The Forest can be reached from the cities of Muyu, Hongping or Songbai, and you should not enter the forest without a guide.

15 | The Oak Island

Money Pit, Oak Island © MRU

Supposedly this privately-owned island in Nova Scotia sits atop buried treasure or rare artifacts. The biggest legend is that a formation of boulders, called “The Money Pit,” which hides treasure from pre-1795 that has yet to be found. But quite a few critics say this theory has no solid evidence backing it up.

16 | Easter Island

Moai Statues on Easter Island, Chile

One of the most isolated islands in the world. The only known, civilization that ever lived on the island has had a sudden population decrease and has made huge head structures called moais. The mystery of this island has brought a lot of attention upon it: How did the Rapa Nui people build the moais? And why did they?

Apart from this, there’s a mysterious bacteria that are found only on Easter Island, which could be the key to immortality. Rapamycin is a drug originally found in Easter Island bacteria. Some scientists say it could stop the ageing process and be the key to immortality. It can lengthen the lives of old mice by 9 to 14 percent, and it boosts longevity in flies and yeast too. Though recent research clearly shows Rapamycin possesses a potential anti-ageing compound, it is not without risk and experts are unsure of what the outcome and side-effects would be for long-term use. Read More

17 | Roopkund Lake

Nestled deep in the Himalayan mountains at 5,029 metres above sea level, Roopkund Lake is a small body of water — approximately 40 metres in diameter — that is colloquially referred to as Skeleton Lake. Because in the summer, as the Sun melts the ice around the lake, there opens dreadful sight — bones and skulls of several hundred ancient humans and horses lying around the lake. Read More

18 | Aokigahara – The Suicide Forest

Aokigahara, the infamous suicide forest of Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan © Wikipedia

Aokigahara Jukai, which literally means “The Sea of Trees” in Japanese, is a densely packed 35 square kilometre forest, that sits at the base of Mt. Fuji in Japan. This eerily quiet place is known as the ‘suicide forest’ as up to 100 bodies per year are recovered, most utilizing drug overdose or hanging as their means of death. Ribbon trails are sometimes left so the bodies can be more easily found. Read More

19 | Hoia Baciu Forest

Hoia Baciu Forest in Transylvania, Romania © Pixabay

There is a creepy haunted forest in Transylvania, Romania, named “Hoia Baciu” which has hundreds of chilling eerie tales to tell. And it’s considered as one of the most haunted forests on earth. The trees are unexplainably bent and twisted which provide this wood a horror appearance and anybody can get an unease horrible feeling from it. Over the years, so many bone-chilling stories of bizarre deaths, disappearances and UFO encounters have loomed large over this eerie forest. Read More

20 | The Ghost Village Of Kuldhara

The Ghost Village Of Kuldhara © Wikipedia

There’s a village named Kuldhara in Rajasthan, India, that dates back to the 13th century, but no one has lived there since 1825 when all its residents once seemingly vanished overnight, and no one knows why, though there are a few eerie theories.

21 | The Ghost Town Of Matsuo Kouzan

The Ghost Town Of Matsuo Kouzan © Michaeljohngrist.com

Matsuo Kouzan in northern Japan used to be the most famous sulphur mine in the Far East, but it closed in 1972. Nowadays, at times, it proves near impossible to locate the apartment blocks of the abandoned Matsuo Mining Town. People can spend hours in the fog trying to locate these relics of one of the world’s once largest sulphur mines, which employed more than 4,000 workers.

Sometimes those who are brave enough to fight through the fog will find themselves not alone there! They will hear running footsteps approaching them in the gloom, carrying the invisible forms right on past, the only evidence being the swirls in the mist taking on human form as they pass on by. Read More

22 | Houska Castle

Houska Castle

Houska Castle is located in the forests north of Prague. The sole reason to build this castle was to close the gateway to hell! It is said that underneath the castle is a bottomless pit filled with demons. In the 1930s, the Nazis conducted experiments in the castle of the occult variety. Years later upon its renovation, skeletons of several Nazi Officers were discovered. Many different types of ghosts are seen around the castle, including a giant bulldog, a frog, a human, a woman in old dress, and most spooky of all, a headless black horse. Read More

23 | Poveglia Island

Poveglia Island

There is an island near Italy called Poveglia Island that was the site of wars, a dumping ground for plague victims, and an insane asylum with an insane doctor. It’s considered so dangerously haunted that the Italian government does not allow public access. Read More

24 | Haunted Dumas Beach

Dumas Beach in Gujarat, India © India CC

Dumas Beach in Gujarat, India, is shrouded with its calm beauty along the dark Arabian Sea. The beach is especially known for its black sand and the spooky activities that occur after the sun goes down into the waves of the darkish sea. Once used to be a burning ground, this site is said to still blow the eerie memories on its winds.

Both morning walkers and tourists often hear the strange cries and whispers within the beach limits. There are reports of a lot of people going missing after they set out on a night-time walk on the beach, exploring the alluring beauty of its darkness. Even the dogs also sense the presence of something unworldly there and bark at the air in a warning to keep their owners from harm. Read More

25 | Devil’s Pool, Queensland, Australia

Devil’s Pool, Babinda, Queensland © Wikipedia

Devil’s Pool is situated near Babinda in Queensland, Australia, where 18 people have died since 1959. The first victim was a missing local villager who was found dead at Devil’s Pool. Two woodcutters passing away of the pool first saw his dead body floating on its water. On November 30, 2008, Tasmanian naval seaman James Bennett became the 17th person to drown at the site.

Aboriginal folklores say that a woman wilfully drowned here after being separated from her lover, and now she haunts the pool luring men to the pool to join her death. People have reported seeing strange apparitions and hearing the sound of someone’s crying. An 18-year-old girl by the name of Madison Tam is the eighteenth person to die at the pool after she was sucked under the water into a tunnel of rocks and vanished. Fifteen of the 18 people who lost their lives at the pool since 1959 have been men — matching the Indigenous tale.

26 | The Dog Suicide Bridge Of Scotland

The Dog Suicide Bridge Of Scotland

Near the village of Milton in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland, there exists a bridge known as the Overtoun Bridge that, for some unknown reasons, has been attracting suicidal dogs since the early 60s. According to the reports, more than 600 dogs have jumped off the bridge to their deaths. Even stranger are the accounts of dogs who had survived only to return to the same spot of the bridge for a second attempt!

Once “The Scottish Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals” had sent their representatives to investigate the whole matter, but they too were stumped by the cause of that strange behaviour, and ended up attempting to jump from the bridge. Somehow, they were able to save their own lives but the suicidal phenomena of the Overtoun Bridge remain a big mystery to this day. Read More

27 | Area 51

Warning sign near secret Area 51 base in Nevada © Wikipedia

The Air Force facility commonly known as Area 51, located within the Nevada Test and Training Range, has captured the imagination of both conspiracy theorists and Hollywood for decades. The top-secret military base (which is still operational) is surrounded by barren desert, and the secrecy surrounding its Cold War-era stealth aircraft testing led to rumors of UFOs and aliens, wild government experiments and even a staged moon landing on the premises. Curious civilians can explore the area around the base, which has become a bizarre tourist destination, although they aren’t permitted inside.

28 | Coral Castle, Homestead, Florida

Coral Castle in Homestead, Florida © Wikipedia

A heartbroken man single-handedly built Coral Castle in Homestead, Florida, over the course of 25 years, up until his death in 1951. Without the use of large machinery, he cut, moved, carved and sculpted more than 1,100 tons of coral rock. How exactly he managed this feat of engineering with only hand tools is still an impressive mystery.

29 | The Lake Michigan Triangle

Michigan Triangle

Did you know that Lake Michigan has its very own Bermuda Triangle? Many people associate shipwrecks with the wild waves of the open ocean, but there is a history of sunken ships, plane crashes and disappearances of vessels and entire crews within an area in Lake Michigan created by drawing lines connecting Benton Harbor in Michigan, Manitowoc in Wisconsin and Ludington in Michigan. As the legends of these documented disasters grew, so did reports of UFOs and paranormal phenomena that could be behind them. Read More

30 | The Nazca Lines Of Peru

Nazca Lines is the general name given to the lines drawn on the ground in the Nazca Desert in Southern Peru, some of which are kilometers long, depicting some forms of life or various geometric shapes. The ground where lines are drawn or scraped © Wikipedia

More than 2,000 years ago, the ancient Nazca people of Peru carved hundreds of giant designs of humans, animals, plants and perfect geometric shapes into the desert plain. All these geo-arts are only seen from the sky. Despite being studied by scientists for more than 80 years, their functions and reasons are still unknown.

31 | The Devil’s Sea

The Devil’s Sea in the Pacific Ocean

In the Pacific Ocean south of Tokyo, Japan, lies a treacherous stretch of water that has been nicknamed “The Devil’s Sea” and many also call it “The Dragon’s Triangle.” Due to a string of vessels and fishing boats that have disappeared, many compare it to the Bermuda Triangle. This is a notorious Pacific site which is filled with mysterious disappearances and sea monster sightings since the late 13th century, when it sank a fleet of 900 Mongol ships carrying 40,000 soldiers.

In modern history, the most famous disappearance took place in 1953 when a research fishery ship called the Kaiyo Maru 5, which consisted of 31 crew members and scientists combined, sailed into the area to investigate a recently formed volcanic island. Unfortunately, the vessel never returned from its voyage with no traces left of it, or the crew for that matter. Read More

32 | Richat Structure Of Mauritania

The Richat Structure of Mauritania © NASA

Also known as the mythical-sounding Eye of the Sahara, the Richat Structure is a 30-mile-wide circular feature that from space looks like a bull’s-eye in the middle of the desert. Richat was initially theorized to be a meteorite impact site but is now believed to have been created by erosion of a dome, revealing its concentric rings of rock layers. Its distinctive shape can be seen by astronauts aboard the International Space Station. Some believe, this place has some kind of connection with advanced extraterrestrial beings. Read More

33 | Stonehenge, England

Stonehenge, a neolithic stone monument constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 BC.

The prehistoric monument from more than 5,000 years ago is such a famous landmark that people might not think of it as mysterious anymore. But how and why these massive stones in England were made and arranged over the course of 1,500 years has captivated researchers, historians and curious visitors for generations. While it is generally accepted that it was built as a sacred temple and burial ground, how Neolithic people managed this massive architectural feat is still debated.

34 | The Bridgewater Triangle Of Massachusetts

The Bridgewater Triangle Of Massachusetts © MRU

“The Bridgewater Triangle of Massachusetts” encloses the towns of Abington, Rehoboth and Freetown at the points of the triangle. It has a number of alluring historical sites that are full of mysteries. Besides this, ‘The Bridgewater Triangle’ is claimed to be a site of alleged paranormal phenomena, ranging from UFOs to poltergeists, orbs, balls of fire and other spectral phenomena, various bigfoot-like sightings, giant snakes and “thunderbirds,” also with large monsters. Read More

35 | Crooked Forest, Poland

The Crooked Forest: A Mysterious Grove of 400 Oddly Bent Pine Trees in Poland

Just south of the unpronounceable city of Szczecin on Poland’s extreme eastern haunch, a stone’s throw west of the border with Germany, a small clutch of just over 400 pine trees has been garnering the attention of Atlas Obscura types and off-the-beaten-track travelers for years.

The entire forest appears to be bent over almost 90 degrees at the trunk, before twisting back straight again and growing vertically into the Slavic sky. Debate has raged as to what caused the unusual wood to come to look like it has, with theories as wide ranging as torrential snowstorms and lumberjack growing techniques.

36 | Teotihuacán, Mexico

Teotihuacan, Mexico City © Flickr

No one knows who built or originally lived in this vast and complex pyramid city, believed to have left around 1,400 years ago. The site, covering around eight square miles (20sqkm), was later a pilgrimage site for the Aztecs, who gave it the name Teotihuacán. Remnants of apartment-like buildings suggest around 100,000 people lived here and worshipped at temples linked by the broad “Avenue of the Dead”.

37 | Moeraki Boulders, New Zealand

Moeraki boulders, Otago, New Zealand © Flickr

Ancient Maori legend says these boulders are gourds or food containers, washed ashore from the wreckage of a canoe that brought their ancestors to New Zealand’s South Island. Another theory suggests they are alien eggs. Geology says they formed in sediment on the sea floor around 65 million years ago, eventually choosing Koekohe Beach as their home.

38 | Yonaguni Monument

Yonaguni Monument in the waters off Yonaguni Island, Japan.

Deep down in Japan’s southern island chain, near Taiwan, is Yonaguni. Island waters here are known among divers for their abundance of hammerhead sharks, but in 1987 one diver discovered something much cooler that still baffles scientists to this day.

Not far below the surface of the water is Yonaguni Monument, a series of sandstone and mudstone structures connected to rock that many people believe are too distinct to be the work of Mother Nature. The largest of the structures is some 500 feet long, 130 feet wide and 90 feet tall.

Features like pillars and stone columns, a star-shaped platform and a road indicate that humans built this thing, but no one knows for sure. Naturally, many believe it to be the remains of the mythical lost city of Atlantis. Read More

39 | Taos

Residential adobe complex, and Taos Mountain pictured on an old postcard, circa 1930-1945 © Wikipedia

Taos, New Mexico — which has been drawing artists to its ancient surroundings since the very end of the 19th century — is a magical place well worth a visit in its own right. The Taos Pueblo, a five-story series of adjoining homes, dates back a millenia and is one of the oldest continually inhabited communities in America.

For those seeking the weird and mystical, Taos is also a top attraction. Since at least 30 years ago, people living in Taos have been hearing a low-frequency and highly annoying humming sound. It’s estimated that at least 2 percent of the 5,600-plus residents can hear the sound, which has no concrete explanation.

It could be a government mind-control experiment. Maybe it emanates from an underground alien base. More plausibly, if less thrillingly, it’s just the sound of mankind, or perhaps all in the heads of cannabis-influenced Bohemians.

In any case, there are other hums around the world, and for some people it’s no laughing matter, with the soft and constant pitch driving them bonkers.

40 | Zone Of Silence, Mexico

Landscape of Zona del Silencio, Chihuahua Desert, North Mexico © Wikipedia

In the beautiful desert in Northern Mexico, there is an area situated between Chihuahua and Coahuila, the states of Durango, which is known as “Zone of Silence” or “Zona del Silencio.” It’s also famous as the Mapimí Silent Zone. According to many experts, this has strange magnetic anomalies that prevent electromagnetic transmission. Radios also do not work there, and the compasses cannot point to the magnetic north.

In July 1970 an Athena RTV test rocket launched from the Green River Launch Complex in Utah lost control and fell in the Mapimí Desert region. The amazing thing at this place is the flora and fauna which have the abnormal mutation. Many tourists come here to see the unique qualities of this place. Because people are very curious to see it and feel its calmness. The area is also infamous for UFO sightings and extraterrestrial activities, which lead it to be compared to the Bermuda Triangle.

41 | The Underwater City Of Cuba

Sonar scan revealed pyramid-shaped strange rocks and granite structures on the seafloor of the west coast of Cuba.

An Underwater City was discovered in Cuba close to the Bermuda Triangle. It was found in 2001 by marine engineer Pauline Zalitzki, and her husband, Paul Weinzweig. After analyzing samples from the submerged complex, scientists were astonished to find it as old as 50,000 years or more. Many believe it to be Atlantis. Read More

42 | Hessdalen Valley

The Hessdalen Lights

Hessdalen Valley in rural central Norway is famous for the unexplained Hessdalen Lights that are observed in a 12-kilometre-long stretch of the valley. These unusual lights have been reported in the region since at least the 1930s. Wanting to study the Hessdalen lights, professor Bjorn Hauge took the above photo with a 30-second exposure. He later claimed that the object seen in the sky was made from silicon, steel, titanium and scandium. The site fascinates many curious minds.

43 | Three Lakes Atop The Mount Kelimutu

The three Lakes of Mount Kelimutu, Indonesia

The three Lakes of Mount Kelimutu, Indonesia, change colour from blue to green to black unpredictably. And the reason behind this phenomenon remains unclear to this day.

44 | Lake Natron In Tanzania

Satellite view of Lake Natron, 2016 © SentinelHub/Flickr

Lake Natron in northern Tanzania is one of the harshest environments on Earth. Temperatures in the lake can rise to 140 °F (60 °C) and the alkalinity is between pH 9 and pH 10.5, almost as alkaline as ammonia. This causes animal crushing into the water to calcify and look like stone figurines when they dry. The lake’s water saves certain kinds of fish that have evolved to survive in such a caustic environment.

45 | The Superstition Mountains

Superstition Mountain © Flickr

Out in the desert wilderness of Arizona near the city of Phoenix reside the Superstition Mountains that are not only known for their legends among the Apache people, who believe the entrance to the underworld lies somewhere in them, but also for the numerous disappearances that have occurred over the years. Though some of these are attributed to those who’ve tried to seek out the Lost Dutchman’s Mine full of gold. Read More

46 | Cahokia

Cahokia was settled around 600 AD. The historic site has long been a source of intrigue since Europeans explored Illinois in the 17th century.

The ruins of the ‘Ancient City of Cahokia’ lie in south-western Illinois between East St. Louis and Collinsville in the United States. Its inhabitants built enormous earthen mounds and vast plazas which served as markets and meeting places. Furthermore, they had very sophisticated agricultural practices that we use today. The people of Cahokia were at their civilizational height between 600 and 1400 AD. However, nobody is certain why the city was abandoned, npr how the region was able to support such a high-density urban civilization of up to 40,000 people for hundreds of years.

47 | Bennington Triangle

“Bennington Triangle” is a phrase coined by New England author Joseph A. Citro during a public radio broadcast in 1992 to denote an area of southwestern Vermont within which a number of people went missing between 1945 and 1950. The area shares characteristics with the Bridgewater Triangle in neighboring Massachusetts. Precisely what area is encompassed in this hypothetical “mystery triangle” is not clear, but it is purportedly centered on Glastenbury Mountain and would include some or most of the area of the towns immediately surrounding it, especially Bennington, Woodford, Shaftsbury, and Somerset.

Bennington Triangle is located in southwestern Vermont, US, and is the site of a string of mysterious disappearances between 1945 and 1950, related in no way but geographic location. These include:

Middie Rivers, 75 years old, was out leading a group of hunters on November 12, 1945. On their way back, he got ahead of his group and was never seen again. Only a single rifle shell found in a stream was recovered as evidence.

Paula Welden was an 18 year old sophomore of Bennington College who was out hiking on December 1, 1946. She never returned and no trace of her was ever found.

Exactly 3 years later, on December 1, 1949, a veteran named James E. Tetford was taking a bus back to his home at the Bennington Soldier’s Home, returning from a visit with relatives. Witnesses saw him on the bus the stop before this, but when the bus arrived at his destination he was nowhere to be seen. His luggage was still on the bus.

Eight years old Paul Jepson disappeared on October 12, 1950, while his mother was busy feeding the pigs. Despite having a highly visible red jacket, none of the search parties formed were able to find the boy.

48 | Skinwalker Ranch

Skinwalker Ranch © Prometheus Entertainment

“Skinwalker Ranch” a 480-acre compound in northeastern Utah is the site of many unexplained and harrowing incidents like roaring underground noises, the appearance of menacing blue orbs, attacks by shape-shifting beasts, and evidence of animal mutilations. Purchased in 1994 by a couple looking to raise cattle and quickly put on the market two years later, the ranch is now managed by the National Institute for Discovery Sciences, a paranormal research organization. Read More

49 | Guanabara Bay Of Brazil

Guanabara Bay with the statue of Christ the Redeemer at the foreground © Wikipedia

In 1982, a treasure hunter named Robert Marx, unearthed the remains of some 200 Roman ceramic jars, a few fully intact, from an underwater field in Brazil’s Guanabara Bay. Those twin-handled amphorae jars were used to transport goods such as grains and wine in the third century. But how did they get there? The first Europeans didn’t even reach Brazil until 1500!

50 | The Mysterious Lake Of Oregon

Oregon’s Lost Lake Drains Down a Perplexing Hole © Band Bulletin/YouTube

On the mountains of Oregon, there is a mysterious lake that forms in every winter, then drains in the spring through two holes at the bottom of the lake, making an extensive meadow. No one is absolutely sure about where does all that water go. Scientists believe that the holes are the openings of lava tubes that are connected with a series of underground volcanic caverns, and the water probably refills an underground aquifer.

51 | The Centre Of The Universe

The Center of the Universe

There is a mysterious circle called “The Center of the Universe” in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in the United States, which is made of broken concrete. If you talk while standing in the circle, you will hear your own voice echoing back at you but outside the circle, nobody can hear that echo sound. Even scientists are not so clear exactly why does it happen. Read More

52 | Kodinhi Village

Kodinhi, The Twin Town

In India, there’s a village called Kodinhi that is reported to have a whopping 240 pairs of twins born to just 2000 families. This is more than six times the global average and one of the highest twinning rates in the world. The village is popularly known as the “Twin Town of India.” Researchers are still finding the proper reasons behind the twins phenomena of Kodinhi. Read More

53 | Göbekli Tepe

Göbekli Tepe site © MRU

Göbekli Tepe is the oldest megalithic structure ever found on earth. Discovered in modern-day Turkey, and still yet to be fully excavated, it dates to a baffling 12,000 years old. It’s not just the oldest site it’s also the largest. Situated on a flat, barren plateau, the site is a spectacular 90,000 square meters. That’s bigger than 12 football fields. It’s 50 times larger than Stonehenge, and in the same breath, 6000 years older. The mysterious people who built Göbekli Tepe not only went to extraordinary lengths they did it with laser-like skill. Then, they purposely buried it and left. These peculiar facts have baffled archaeologists who have spent 20 years unearthing its secrets. Read More

54 | North Sentinel Island, India

Satellite image of North Sentinel Island © NASA

This is one of the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal, where a group of indigenous people, the Sentinelese, live. Their population is estimated to be between 50 and 400 individuals. They live completely isolated and have rejected any contact with other people. The Indian Government has declared it off limits. Entry is made even more challenging by locals reported desire to kill outsiders. They have been known to fire arrows and throw rocks. In tha las few decades, a number of explorers, photographers and researchers have been killed by that indigenous group.

55 | Pine Gap, Australia

Pine Gap near Alice Springs in Central Australia © Wikipedia

Known as Australia’s equivalent to Area 51, this facility is run by the government and the CIA. It is the only place down under which is declared as a no-fly zone and is used as a monitoring station. What exactly they are monitoring, nobody knows. It employs over 800 people and has been subject to numerous public controversies over the years.

56 | Flannan Isles Lighthouse

Postcard from 1912 showing the Flannan Isles lighthouse © MRU

Flannan Isles Lighthouse is a lighthouse near the highest point on Eilean Mòr off the west coast of mainland Scotland. This lighthouse gets its creepiness from an event that took place in December, 1900. When a passing ship noticed that the lighthouse wasn’t operating as usual, a team were sent to investigate — what they discovered left them with more questions than answers. The three men who manned the lighthouse were nowhere to be seen. Despite the best efforts of investigators, no plausible explanation for the crew’s mysterious disappearance has ever been reached.


Contents

Timaeus

The only primary sources for Atlantis are Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias all other mentions of the island are based on them. The dialogues claim to quote Solon, who visited Egypt between 590 and 580 BC they state that he translated Egyptian records of Atlantis. [20] Written in 360 BC, Plato introduced Atlantis in Timaeus:

For it is related in our records how once upon a time your State stayed the course of a mighty host, which, starting from a distant point in the Atlantic ocean, was insolently advancing to attack the whole of Europe, and Asia to boot. For the ocean there was at that time navigable for in front of the mouth which you Greeks call, as you say, 'the pillars of Heracles,' there lay an island which was larger than Libya and Asia together and it was possible for the travelers of that time to cross from it to the other islands, and from the islands to the whole of the continent over against them which encompasses that veritable ocean. For all that we have here, lying within the mouth of which we speak, is evidently a haven having a narrow entrance but that yonder is a real ocean, and the land surrounding it may most rightly be called, in the fullest and truest sense, a continent. Now in this island of Atlantis there existed a confederation of kings, of great and marvelous power, which held sway over all the island, and over many other islands also and parts of the continent. [21]

The four people appearing in those two dialogues are the politicians Critias and Hermocrates as well as the philosophers Socrates and Timaeus of Locri, although only Critias speaks of Atlantis. In his works Plato makes extensive use of the Socratic method in order to discuss contrary positions within the context of a supposition.

The Timaeus begins with an introduction, followed by an account of the creations and structure of the universe and ancient civilizations. In the introduction, Socrates muses about the perfect society, described in Plato's Republic (c. 380 BC), and wonders if he and his guests might recollect a story which exemplifies such a society. Critias mentions a tale he considered to be historical, that would make the perfect example, and he then follows by describing Atlantis as is recorded in the Critias. In his account, ancient Athens seems to represent the "perfect society" and Atlantis its opponent, representing the very antithesis of the "perfect" traits described in the Republic.

Critias

According to Critias, the Hellenic deities of old divided the land so that each deity might have their own lot Poseidon was appropriately, and to his liking, bequeathed the island of Atlantis. The island was larger than Ancient Libya and Asia Minor combined, [22] [23] but it was later sunk by an earthquake and became an impassable mud shoal, inhibiting travel to any part of the ocean. Plato asserted that the Egyptians described Atlantis as an island consisting mostly of mountains in the northern portions and along the shore and encompassing a great plain in an oblong shape in the south "extending in one direction three thousand stadia [about 555 km 345 mi], but across the center inland it was two thousand stadia [about 370 km 230 mi]." Fifty stadia [9 km 6 mi] from the coast was a mountain that was low on all sides . broke it off all round about . the central island itself was five stades in diameter [about 0.92 km 0.57 mi].

In Plato's metaphorical tale, Poseidon fell in love with Cleito, the daughter of Evenor and Leucippe, who bore him five pairs of male twins. The eldest of these, Atlas, was made rightful king of the entire island and the ocean (called the Atlantic Ocean in his honor), and was given the mountain of his birth and the surrounding area as his fiefdom. Atlas's twin Gadeirus, or Eumelus in Greek, was given the extremity of the island toward the pillars of Hercules. [24] The other four pairs of twins—Ampheres and Evaemon, Mneseus and Autochthon, Elasippus and Mestor, and Azaes and Diaprepes—were also given "rule over many men, and a large territory."

Poseidon carved the mountain where his love dwelt into a palace and enclosed it with three circular moats of increasing width, varying from one to three stadia and separated by rings of land proportional in size. The Atlanteans then built bridges northward from the mountain, making a route to the rest of the island. They dug a great canal to the sea, and alongside the bridges carved tunnels into the rings of rock so that ships could pass into the city around the mountain they carved docks from the rock walls of the moats. Every passage to the city was guarded by gates and towers, and a wall surrounded each ring of the city. The walls were constructed of red, white, and black rock, quarried from the moats, and were covered with brass, tin, and the precious metal orichalcum, respectively.

According to Critias, 9,000 years before his lifetime a war took place between those outside the Pillars of Hercules at the Strait of Gibraltar and those who dwelt within them. The Atlanteans had conquered the parts of Libya within the Pillars of Hercules, as far as Egypt, and the European continent as far as Tyrrhenia, and had subjected its people to slavery. The Athenians led an alliance of resistors against the Atlantean empire, and as the alliance disintegrated, prevailed alone against the empire, liberating the occupied lands.

But afterwards there occurred violent earthquakes and floods and in a single day and night of misfortune all your warlike men in a body sank into the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner disappeared in the depths of the sea. For which reason the sea in those parts is impassable and impenetrable, because there is a shoal of mud in the way and this was caused by the subsidence of the island. [25]

The logographer Hellanicus of Lesbos wrote an earlier work entitled Atlantis, of which only a few fragments survive. Hellanicus' work appears to have been a genealogical one concerning the daughters of Atlas (Ἀτλαντὶς in Greek means "of Atlas"), [12] but some authors have suggested a possible connection with Plato's island. John V. Luce notes that when Plato writes about the genealogy of Atlantis's kings, he writes in the same style as Hellanicus, suggesting a similarity between a fragment of Hellanicus's work and an account in the Critias. [12] Rodney Castleden suggests that Plato may have borrowed his title from Hellanicus, who may have based his work on an earlier work about Atlantis. [26]

Castleden has pointed out that Plato wrote of Atlantis in 359 BC, when he returned to Athens from Sicily. He notes a number of parallels between the physical organisation and fortifications of Syracuse and Plato's description of Atlantis. [27] Gunnar Rudberg was the first who elaborated upon the idea that Plato's attempt to realize his political ideas in the city of Syracuse could have heavily inspired the Atlantis account. [28]

Ancient

Some ancient writers viewed Atlantis as fictional or metaphorical myth others believed it to be real. [29] Aristotle believed that Plato, his teacher, had invented the island to teach philosophy. [20] The philosopher Crantor, a student of Plato's student Xenocrates, is cited often as an example of a writer who thought the story to be historical fact. His work, a commentary on Timaeus, is lost, but Proclus, a Neoplatonist of the fifth century AD, reports on it. [30] The passage in question has been represented in the modern literature either as claiming that Crantor visited Egypt, had conversations with priests, and saw hieroglyphs confirming the story, or, as claiming that he learned about them from other visitors to Egypt. [31] Proclus wrote:

As for the whole of this account of the Atlanteans, some say that it is unadorned history, such as Crantor, the first commentator on Plato. Crantor also says that Plato's contemporaries used to criticize him jokingly for not being the inventor of his Republic but copying the institutions of the Egyptians. Plato took these critics seriously enough to assign to the Egyptians this story about the Athenians and Atlanteans, so as to make them say that the Athenians really once lived according to that system.

The next sentence is often translated "Crantor adds, that this is testified by the prophets of the Egyptians, who assert that these particulars [which are narrated by Plato] are written on pillars which are still preserved." But in the original, the sentence starts not with the name Crantor but with the ambiguous He whether this referred to Crantor or to Plato is the subject of considerable debate. Proponents of both Atlantis as a metaphorical myth and Atlantis as history have argued that the pronoun refers to Crantor. [32]

Alan Cameron argues that the pronoun should be interpreted as referring to Plato, and that, when Proclus writes that "we must bear in mind concerning this whole feat of the Athenians, that it is neither a mere myth nor unadorned history, although some take it as history and others as myth", he is treating "Crantor's view as mere personal opinion, nothing more in fact he first quotes and then dismisses it as representing one of the two unacceptable extremes". [33]

Cameron also points out that whether he refers to Plato or to Crantor, the statement does not support conclusions such as Otto Muck's "Crantor came to Sais and saw there in the temple of Neith the column, completely covered with hieroglyphs, on which the history of Atlantis was recorded. Scholars translated it for him, and he testified that their account fully agreed with Plato's account of Atlantis" [34] or J. V. Luce's suggestion that Crantor sent "a special enquiry to Egypt" and that he may simply be referring to Plato's own claims. [33]

Another passage from the commentary by Proclus on the "Timaeus" gives a description of the geography of Atlantis:

That an island of such nature and size once existed is evident from what is said by certain authors who investigated the things around the outer sea. For according to them, there were seven islands in that sea in their time, sacred to Persephone, and also three others of enormous size, one of which was sacred to Hades, another to Ammon, and another one between them to Poseidon, the extent of which was a thousand stadia [200 km] and the inhabitants of it—they add—preserved the remembrance from their ancestors of the immeasurably large island of Atlantis which had really existed there and which for many ages had reigned over all islands in the Atlantic sea and which itself had like-wise been sacred to Poseidon. Now these things Marcellus has written in his Aethiopica. [35]

Marcellus remains unidentified.

Other ancient historians and philosophers who believed in the existence of Atlantis were Strabo and Posidonius. [36] Some have theorized that, before the sixth century BC, the "Pillars of Hercules" may have applied to mountains on either side of the Gulf of Laconia, and also may have been part of the pillar cult of the Aegean. [37] [38] The mountains stood at either side of the southernmost gulf in Greece, the largest in the Peloponnese, and it opens onto the Mediterranean Sea. This would have placed Atlantis in the Mediterranean, lending credence to many details in Plato's discussion.

The fourth-century historian Ammianus Marcellinus, relying on a lost work by Timagenes, a historian writing in the first century BC, writes that the Druids of Gaul said that part of the inhabitants of Gaul had migrated there from distant islands. Some have understood Ammianus's testimony as a claim that at the time of Atlantis's sinking into the sea, its inhabitants fled to western Europe but Ammianus, in fact, says that "the Drasidae (Druids) recall that a part of the population is indigenous but others also migrated in from islands and lands beyond the Rhine" (Res Gestae 15.9), an indication that the immigrants came to Gaul from the north (Britain, the Netherlands, or Germany), not from a theorized location in the Atlantic Ocean to the south-west. [39] Instead, the Celts who dwelled along the ocean were reported to venerate twin gods, (Dioscori), who appeared to them coming from that ocean. [40]

Jewish and Christian

During the early first century, the Hellenistic Jewish philosopher Philo wrote about the destruction of Atlantis in his On the Eternity of the World, xxvi. 141, in a longer passage allegedly citing Aristotle's successor Theophrastus: [41]

. And the island of Atalantes [translator's spelling original: " Ἀτλαντίς "] which was greater than Africa and Asia, as Plato says in the Timaeus, in one day and night was overwhelmed beneath the sea in consequence of an extraordinary earthquake and inundation and suddenly disappeared, becoming sea, not indeed navigable, but full of gulfs and eddies. [42]

The theologian Joseph Barber Lightfoot (Apostolic Fathers, 1885, II, p. 84) noted on this passage: "Clement may possibly be referring to some known, but hardly accessible land, lying without the pillars of Hercules. But more probably he contemplated some unknown land in the far west beyond the ocean, like the fabled Atlantis of Plato . " [43]

Other early Christian writers wrote about Atlantis, although they had mixed views on whether it once existed or was an untrustworthy myth of pagan origin. [44] Tertullian believed Atlantis was once real and wrote that in the Atlantic Ocean once existed "[the isle] that was equal in size to Libya or Asia" [45] referring to Plato's geographical description of Atlantis. The early Christian apologist writer Arnobius also believed Atlantis once existed, but blamed its destruction on pagans. [46]

Cosmas Indicopleustes in the sixth century wrote of Atlantis in his Christian Topography in an attempt to prove his theory that the world was flat and surrounded by water: [47]

. In like manner the philosopher Timaeus also describes this Earth as surrounded by the Ocean, and the Ocean as surrounded by the more remote earth. For he supposes that there is to westward an island, Atlantis, lying out in the Ocean, in the direction of Gadeira (Cadiz), of an enormous magnitude, and relates that the ten kings having procured mercenaries from the nations in this island came from the earth far away, and conquered Europe and Asia, but were afterwards conquered by the Athenians, while that island itself was submerged by God under the sea. Both Plato and Aristotle praise this philosopher, and Proclus has written a commentary on him. He himself expresses views similar to our own with some modifications, transferring the scene of the events from the east to the west. Moreover he mentions those ten generations as well as that earth which lies beyond the Ocean. And in a word it is evident that all of them borrow from Moses, and publish his statements as their own. [48]

Modern

Aside from Plato's original account, modern interpretations regarding Atlantis are an amalgamation of diverse, speculative movements that began in the sixteenth century, [50] when scholars began to identify Atlantis with the New World. Francisco Lopez de Gomara was the first to state that Plato was referring to America, as did Francis Bacon and Alexander von Humboldt Janus Joannes Bircherod said in 1663 orbe novo non-novo ("the New World is not new"). Athanasius Kircher accepted Plato's account as literally true, describing Atlantis as a small continent in the Atlantic Ocean. [20]

Contemporary perceptions of Atlantis share roots with Mayanism, which can be traced to the beginning of the Modern Age, when European imaginations were fueled by their initial encounters with the indigenous peoples of the Americas. [51] From this era sprang apocalyptic and utopian visions that would inspire many subsequent generations of theorists. [51]

Most of these interpretations are considered pseudohistory, pseudoscience, or pseudoarchaeology, as they have presented their works as academic or scientific, but lack the standards or criteria.

The Flemish cartographer and geographer Abraham Ortelius is believed to have been the first person to imagine that the continents were joined together before drifting to their present positions. In the 1596 edition of his Thesaurus Geographicus he wrote: "Unless it be a fable, the island of Gadir or Gades [Cadiz] will be the remaining part of the island of Atlantis or America, which was not sunk (as Plato reports in the Timaeus) so much as torn away from Europe and Africa by earthquakes and flood. The traces of the ruptures are shown by the projections of Europe and Africa and the indentations of America in the parts of the coasts of these three said lands that face each other to anyone who, using a map of the world, carefully considered them. So that anyone may say with Strabo in Book 2, that what Plato says of the island of Atlantis on the authority of Solon is not a figment." [52]

Atlantis pseudohistory

Early influential literature

The term "utopia" (from "no place") was coined by Sir Thomas More in his sixteenth-century work of fiction Utopia. [53] Inspired by Plato's Atlantis and travelers' accounts of the Americas, More described an imaginary land set in the New World. [54] His idealistic vision established a connection between the Americas and utopian societies, a theme that Bacon discussed in The New Atlantis (c. 1623). [51] A character in the narrative gives a history of Atlantis that is similar to Plato's and places Atlantis in America. People had begun believing that the Mayan and Aztec ruins could possibly be the remnants of Atlantis. [53]

Impact of Mayanism

Much speculation began as to the origins of the Maya, which led to a variety of narratives and publications that tried to rationalize the discoveries within the context of the Bible and that had undertones of racism in their connections between the Old and New World. The Europeans believed the indigenous people to be inferior and incapable of building that which was now in ruins and by sharing a common history, they insinuate that another race must have been responsible.

In the middle and late nineteenth century, several renowned Mesoamerican scholars, starting with Charles Etienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, and including Edward Herbert Thompson and Augustus Le Plongeon, formally proposed that Atlantis was somehow related to Mayan and Aztec culture.

The French scholar Brasseur de Bourbourg traveled extensively through Mesoamerica in the mid-1800s, and was renowned for his translations of Mayan texts, most notably the sacred book Popol Vuh, as well as a comprehensive history of the region. Soon after these publications, however, Brasseur de Bourbourg lost his academic credibility, due to his claim that the Maya peoples had descended from the Toltecs, people he believed were the surviving population of the racially superior civilization of Atlantis. [55] His work combined with the skillful, romantic illustrations of Jean Frederic Waldeck, which visually alluded to Egypt and other aspects of the Old World, created an authoritative fantasy that excited much interest in the connections between worlds.

Inspired by Brasseur de Bourbourg's diffusion theories, the pseudoarchaeologist Augustus Le Plongeon traveled to Mesoamerica and performed some of the first excavations of many famous Mayan ruins. Le Plongeon invented narratives, such as the kingdom of Mu saga, which romantically drew connections to him, his wife Alice, and Egyptian deities Osiris and Isis, as well as to Heinrich Schliemann, who had just discovered the ancient city of Troy from Homer's epic poetry (that had been described as merely mythical). [56] He also believed that he had found connections between the Greek and Mayan languages, which produced a narrative of the destruction of Atlantis. [57]

Ignatius Donnelly

The 1882 publication of Atlantis: the Antediluvian World by Ignatius L. Donnelly stimulated much popular interest in Atlantis. He was greatly inspired by early works in Mayanism, and like them, attempted to establish that all known ancient civilizations were descended from Atlantis, which he saw as a technologically sophisticated, more advanced culture. Donnelly drew parallels between creation stories in the Old and New Worlds, attributing the connections to Atlantis, where he believed the Biblical Garden of Eden existed. [58] As implied by the title of his book, he also believed that Atlantis was destroyed by the Great Flood mentioned in the Bible.

Donnelly is credited as the "father of the nineteenth century Atlantis revival" and is the reason the myth endures today. [59] He unintentionally promoted an alternative method of inquiry to history and science, and the idea that myths contain hidden information that opens them to "ingenious" interpretation by people who believe they have new or special insight. [60]

Madame Blavatsky and the Theosophists

The Russian mystic Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and her partner Henry Steel Olcott founded their Theosophical Society in the 1870s with a philosophy that combined western romanticism and eastern religious concepts. Blavatsky and her followers in this group are often cited as the founders of New Age and other spiritual movements. [53]

Blavatsky took up Donnelly's interpretations when she wrote The Secret Doctrine (1888), which she claimed was originally dictated in Atlantis. She maintained that the Atlanteans were cultural heroes (contrary to Plato, who describes them mainly as a military threat). She believed in a form of racial evolution (as opposed to primate evolution). In her process of evolution the Atlanteans were the fourth "Root Race", which were succeeded by the fifth, the "Aryan race", which she identified with the modern human race. [53]

The Theosophists believed that the civilization of Atlantis reached its peak between 1,000,000 and 900,000 years ago, but destroyed itself through internal warfare brought about by the dangerous use of psychic and supernatural powers of the inhabitants. Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy and Waldorf Schools, along with other well known Theosophists, such as Annie Besant, also wrote of cultural evolution in much the same vein. Some subsequent occultists have followed Blavatsky, at least to the point of tracing the lineage of occult practices back to Atlantis. Among the most famous is Dion Fortune in her Esoteric Orders and Their Work. [61]

Drawing on the ideas of Rudolf Steiner and Hanns Hörbiger, Egon Friedell started his book Kulturgeschichte des Altertums [de] , and thus his historical analysis of antiquity, with the ancient culture of Atlantis. The book was published in 1940.

Nazism and occultism

Blavatsky was also inspired by the work of the 18th-century astronomer Jean-Sylvain Bailly, who had "Orientalized" the Atlantis myth in his mythical continent of Hyperborea, a reference to Greek myths featuring a Northern European region of the same name, home to a giant, godlike race. [62] [63] Dan Edelstein claims that her reshaping of this theory in The Secret Doctrine provided the Nazis with a mythological precedent and a pretext for their ideological platform and their subsequent genocide. [62] However, Blavatsky's writings mention that the Atlantean were in fact olive-skinned peoples with Mongoloid traits who were the ancestors of modern Native Americans, Mongolians, and Malayans. [64] [65] [66]

The idea that the Atlanteans were Hyperborean, Nordic supermen who originated in the Northern Atlantic or even in the far North, was popular in the German ariosophic movement around 1900, propagated by Guido von List and others. [67] It gave its name to the Thule Gesellschaft, an antisemite Münich lodge, which preceded the German Nazi Party (see Thule). The scholars Karl Georg Zschaetzsch [de] (1920) and Herman Wirth (1928) were the first to speak of a "Nordic-Atlantean" or "Aryan-Nordic" master race that spread from Atlantis over the Northern Hemisphere and beyond. The Hyperboreans were contrasted with the Jewish people. Party ideologist Alfred Rosenberg (in The Myth of the Twentieth Century, 1930) and SS-leader Heinrich Himmler made it part of the official doctrine. [68] The idea was followed up by the adherents of Esoteric Nazism such as Julius Evola (1934) and, more recently, Miguel Serrano (1978).

The idea of Atlantis as the homeland of the Caucasian race would contradict the beliefs of older Esoteric and Theosophic groups, which taught that the Atlanteans were non-Caucasian brown-skinned peoples. Modern Esoteric groups, including the Theosophic Society, do not consider Atlantean society to have been superior or Utopian—they rather consider it a lower stage of evolution. [69]

Edgar Cayce

The clairvoyant Edgar Cayce spoke frequently of Atlantis. During his "life readings", he claimed that many of his subjects were reincarnations of people who had lived there. By tapping into their collective consciousness, the "Akashic Records" (a term borrowed from Theosophy), [70] Cayce declared that he was able to give detailed descriptions of the lost continent. [71] He also asserted that Atlantis would "rise" again in the 1960s (sparking much popularity of the myth in that decade) and that there is a "Hall of Records" beneath the Egyptian Sphinx which holds the historical texts of Atlantis.

Recent times

As continental drift became widely accepted during the 1960s, and the increased understanding of plate tectonics demonstrated the impossibility of a lost continent in the geologically recent past, [72] most "Lost Continent" theories of Atlantis began to wane in popularity.

Plato scholar Julia Annas, Regents Professor of Philosophy at the University of Arizona, had this to say on the matter:

The continuing industry of discovering Atlantis illustrates the dangers of reading Plato. For he is clearly using what has become a standard device of fiction—stressing the historicity of an event (and the discovery of hitherto unknown authorities) as an indication that what follows is fiction. The idea is that we should use the story to examine our ideas of government and power. We have missed the point if instead of thinking about these issues we go off exploring the sea bed. The continuing misunderstanding of Plato as historian here enables us to see why his distrust of imaginative writing is sometimes justified. [73]

One of the proposed explanations for the historical context of the Atlantis story is a warning of Plato to his contemporary fourth-century fellow-citizens against their striving for naval power. [18]

Kenneth Feder points out that Critias's story in the Timaeus provides a major clue. In the dialogue, Critias says, referring to Socrates' hypothetical society:

And when you were speaking yesterday about your city and citizens, the tale which I have just been repeating to you came into my mind, and I remarked with astonishment how, by some mysterious coincidence, you agreed in almost every particular with the narrative of Solon. . [74]

Feder quotes A. E. Taylor, who wrote, "We could not be told much more plainly that the whole narrative of Solon's conversation with the priests and his intention of writing the poem about Atlantis are an invention of Plato's fancy." [75]

Since Donnelly's day, there have been dozens of locations proposed for Atlantis, to the point where the name has become a generic concept, divorced from the specifics of Plato's account. This is reflected in the fact that many proposed sites are not within the Atlantic at all. Few today are scholarly or archaeological hypotheses, while others have been made by psychic (e.g., Edgar Cayce) or other pseudoscientific means. (The Atlantis researchers Jacques Collina-Girard and Georgeos Díaz-Montexano, for instance, each claim the other's hypothesis is pseudoscience.) [76] Many of the proposed sites share some of the characteristics of the Atlantis story (water, catastrophic end, relevant time period), but none has been demonstrated to be a true historical Atlantis.

In or near the Mediterranean Sea

Most of the historically proposed locations are in or near the Mediterranean Sea: islands such as Sardinia, [77] [78] [79] Crete, Santorini (Thera), Sicily, Cyprus, and Malta land-based cities or states such as Troy, [80] Tartessos, and Tantalis (in the province of Manisa, Turkey) [81] Israel-Sinai or Canaan [ citation needed ] and northwestern Africa. [82]

The Thera eruption, dated to the seventeenth or sixteenth century BC, caused a large tsunami that some experts hypothesize devastated the Minoan civilization on the nearby island of Crete, further leading some to believe that this may have been the catastrophe that inspired the story. [83] [84] In the area of the Black Sea the following locations have been proposed: Bosporus and Ancomah (a legendary place near Trabzon).

Others have noted that, before the sixth century BC, the mountains on either side of the Gulf of Laconia were called the "Pillars of Hercules", [37] [38] and they could be the geographical location being described in ancient reports upon which Plato was basing his story. The mountains stood at either side of the southernmost gulf in Greece, the largest in the Peloponnese, and that gulf opens onto the Mediterranean Sea. If from the beginning of discussions, misinterpretation of Gibraltar as the location rather than being at the Gulf of Laconia, would lend itself to many erroneous concepts regarding the location of Atlantis. Plato may have not been aware of the difference. The Laconian pillars open to the south toward Crete and beyond which is Egypt. The Thera eruption and the Late Bronze Age collapse affected that area and might have been the devastation to which the sources used by Plato referred. Significant events such as these would have been likely material for tales passed from one generation to another for almost a thousand years.

In the Atlantic Ocean

The location of Atlantis in the Atlantic Ocean has a certain appeal given the closely related names. Popular culture often places Atlantis there, perpetuating the original Platonic setting as they understand it. The Canary Islands and Madeira Islands have been identified as a possible location, [85] [86] [87] [88] west of the Straits of Gibraltar, but in relative proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed studies of their geomorphology and geology have demonstrated, however, that they have been steadily uplifted, without any significant periods of subsidence, over the last four million years, by geologic processes such as erosional unloading, gravitational unloading, lithospheric flexure induced by adjacent islands, and volcanic underplating. [89] [90]

Various islands or island groups in the Atlantic were also identified as possible locations, notably the Azores. [87] [88] Similarly, cores of sediment covering the ocean bottom surrounding the Azores and other evidence demonstrate that it has been an undersea plateau for millions of years. [91] [92] The area is known for its volcanism however, which is associated with rifting along the Azores Triple Junction. The spread of the crust along the existing faults and fractures has produced many volcanic and seismic events. [93] The area is supported by a buoyant upwelling in the deeper mantle, which some associate with an Azores hotspot. [94] Most of the volcanic activity has occurred primarily along the Terceira Rift. From the beginning of the islands' settlement, around the 15th century, there have been about 30 volcanic eruptions (terrestrial and submarine) as well as numerous, powerful earthquakes. [95]

The submerged island of Spartel near the Strait of Gibraltar has also been suggested. [96]

Ireland

In 2004, Swedish physiographist Ulf Erlingsson [97] proposed that the legend of Atlantis was based on Stone Age Ireland. He later stated that he does not believe that Atlantis ever existed but maintained that his hypothesis that its description matches Ireland's geography has a 99.8% probability. The director of the National Museum of Ireland commented that there was no archaeology supporting this. [98]

In Europe

Several hypotheses place the sunken island in northern Europe, including Doggerland in the North Sea, and Sweden (by Olof Rudbeck in Atland, 1672–1702). Doggerland, as well as Viking Bergen Island, is thought to have been flooded by a megatsunami following the Storegga slide of c. 6100 BC. Some have proposed the Celtic Shelf as a possible location, and that there is a link to Ireland. [99]

In 2011, a team, working on a documentary for the National Geographic Channel, [100] led by Professor Richard Freund from the University of Hartford, claimed to have found possible evidence of Atlantis in southwestern Andalusia. [101] The team identified its possible location within the marshlands of the Doñana National Park, in the area that once was the Lacus Ligustinus, [102] between the Huelva, Cádiz, and Seville provinces, and they speculated that Atlantis had been destroyed by a tsunami, [103] extrapolating results from a previous study by Spanish researchers, published four years earlier. [104]

Spanish scientists have dismissed Freund's speculations, claiming that he sensationalised their work. The anthropologist Juan Villarías-Robles, who works with the Spanish National Research Council, said, "Richard Freund was a newcomer to our project and appeared to be involved in his own very controversial issue concerning King Solomon's search for ivory and gold in Tartessos, the well documented settlement in the Doñana area established in the first millennium BC", and described Freund's claims as "fanciful". [105]

A similar theory had previously been put forward by a German researcher, Rainer W. Kühne, that is based only on satellite imagery and places Atlantis in the Marismas de Hinojos, north of the city of Cádiz. [96] Before that, the historian Adolf Schulten had stated in the 1920s that Plato had used Tartessos as the basis for his Atlantis myth. [106]

Other locations

Several writers have speculated that Antarctica is the site of Atlantis. [107] [108] A number of claims involve the Caribbean, either as an hypothetical emergent island formed by a combination of the Venezuela Basin, the Greater Antilles (namely Puerto Rico and Hispaniola) and the ridges of Beata and Aves or specific locations such as an alleged underwater formation off the Guanahacabibes peninsula in Cuba. [109] [110] The adjacent Bahamas or the folkloric Bermuda Triangle have been proposed as well. Areas in the Pacific and Indian Oceans have also been proposed including Indonesia (i.e. Sundaland). [111] The stories of a lost continent off the coast of India, named "Kumari Kandam," have inspired some to draw parallels to Atlantis. [112]

Ancient versions

In order to give his account of Atlantis verisimilitude, Plato mentions that the story was heard by Solon in Egypt, and transmitted orally over several generations through the family of Dropides, until it reached Critias, a dialogue speaker in Timaeus and Critias. [113] Solon had supposedly tried to adapt the Atlantis oral tradition into a poem (that if published, was to be greater than the works of Hesiod and Homer). While it was never completed, Solon passed on the story to Dropides. Modern classicists deny the existence of Solon's Atlantis poem and the story as an oral tradition. [114] Instead, Plato is thought to be the sole inventor or fabricator. Hellanicus of Lesbos used the word "Atlantis" as the title for a poem published before Plato, [115] a fragment of which may be Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 11, 1359. [116] This work only describes the Atlantides (the daughters of Atlas), however, and has no relation to Plato's Atlantis account.

In the new era, the third century AD Neoplatonist Zoticus wrote an epic poem based on Plato's account of Atlantis. [117] Plato's work may already have inspired parodic imitation, however. Writing only a few decades after the Timaeus and Critias, the historian Theopompus of Chios wrote of a land beyond the ocean known as Meropis. This description was included in Book 8 of his Philippica, which contains a dialogue between Silenus and King Midas. Silenus describes the Meropids, a race of men who grow to twice normal size, and inhabit two cities on the island of Meropis: Eusebes ( Εὐσεβής , "Pious-town") and Machimos ( Μάχιμος , "Fighting-town"). He also reports that an army of ten million soldiers crossed the ocean to conquer Hyperborea, but abandoned this proposal when they realized that the Hyperboreans were the luckiest people on earth. Heinz-Günther Nesselrath has argued that these and other details of Silenus' story are meant as imitation and exaggeration of the Atlantis story, by parody, for the purpose of exposing Plato's ideas to ridicule. [118]

Utopias and dystopias

The creation of Utopian and dystopian fictions was renewed after the Renaissance, most notably in Francis Bacon's New Atlantis (1627), the description of an ideal society that he located off the western coast of America. Thomas Heyrick (1649-1694) followed him with "The New Atlantis" (1687), a satirical poem in three parts. His new continent of uncertain location, perhaps even a floating island either in the sea or the sky, serves as background for his exposure of what he described in a second edition as "A True Character of Popery and Jesuitism". [119]

The title of The New Atalantis by Delarivier Manley (1709), distinguished from the two others by the single letter, is an equally dystopian work but set this time on a fictional Mediterranean island. [120] In it sexual violence and exploitation is made a metaphor for the hypocritical behaviour of politicians in their dealings with the general public. [121] In Manley's case, the target of satire was the Whig Party, while in David Maclean Parry's The Scarlet Empire (1906) it is Socialism as practised in foundered Atlantis. [122] It was followed in Russia by Velemir Khlebnikov's poem The Fall of Atlantis (Gibel' Atlantidy, 1912), which is set in a future rationalist dystopia that has discovered the secret of immortality and is so dedicated to progress that it has lost touch with the past. When the high priest of this ideology is tempted by a slave girl into an act of irrationality, he murders her and precipitates a second flood, above which her severed head floats vengefully among the stars. [123]

A slightly later work, The Ancient of Atlantis (Boston, 1915) by Albert Armstrong Manship, expounds the Atlantean wisdom that is to redeem the earth. Its three parts consist of a verse narrative of the life and training of an Atlantean wise one, followed by his Utopian moral teachings and then a psychic drama set in modern times in which a reincarnated child embodying the lost wisdom is reborn on earth. [124]

In Hispanic eyes, Atlantis had a more intimate interpretation. The land had been a colonial power which, although it had brought civilization to ancient Europe, had also enslaved its peoples. Its tyrannical fall from grace had contributed to the fate that had overtaken it, but now its disappearance had unbalanced the world. This was the point of view of Jacint Verdaguer's vast mythological epic L'Atlantida (1877). After the sinking of the former continent, Hercules travels east across the Atlantic to found the city of Barcelona and then departs westward again to the Hesperides. The story is told by a hermit to a shipwrecked mariner, who is inspired to follow in his tracks and so "call the New World into existence to redress the balance of the Old". This mariner, of course, was Christopher Columbus. [125]

Verdaguer's poem was written in Catalan, but was widely translated in both Europe and Hispano-America. [126] One response was the similarly entitled Argentinian Atlantida of Olegario Victor Andrade (1881), which sees in "Enchanted Atlantis that Plato foresaw, a golden promise to the fruitful race" of Latins. [127] The bad example of the colonising world remains, however. Jose Juan Tablada characterises its threat in his "De Atlántida" (1894) through the beguiling picture of the lost world populated by the underwater creatures of Classical myth, among whom is the Siren of its final stanza with

her eye on the keel of the wandering vessel that in passing deflowers the sea's smooth mirror, launching into the night her amorous warbling and the dulcet lullaby of her treacherous voice! [128]

There is a similar ambivalence in Janus Djurhuus' six-stanza "Atlantis" (1917), where a celebration of the Faroese linguistic revival grants it an ancient pedigree by linking Greek to Norse legend. In the poem a female figure rising from the sea against a background of Classical palaces is recognised as a priestess of Atlantis. The poet recalls "that the Faroes lie there in the north Atlantic Ocean/ where before lay the poet-dreamt lands," but also that in Norse belief, such a figure only appears to those about to drown. [129]

A land lost in the distance

The fact that Atlantis is a lost land has made of it a metaphor for something no longer attainable. For the American poet Edith Willis Linn Forbes (1865-1945), "The Lost Atlantis" stands for idealisation of the past the present moment can only be treasured once that is realised. [130] Ella Wheeler Wilcox finds the location of "The Lost Land" (1910) in one's carefree youthful past. [131] Similarly, for the Irish poet Eavan Boland in "Atlantis, a lost sonnet" (2007), the idea was defined when "the old fable-makers searched hard for a word/ to convey that what is gone is gone forever". [132]

For some male poets too, the idea of Atlantis is constructed from what cannot be obtained. Charles Bewley in his Newdigate Prize poem (1910) thinks it grows from dissatisfaction with one's condition,

And, because life is partly sweet And ever girt about with pain, We take the sweetness, and are fain To set it free from grief's alloy

in a dream of Atlantis. [133] Similarly for the Australian Gary Catalano in a 1982 prose poem, it is "a vision that sank under the weight of its own perfection". [134] W. H. Auden, however, suggests a way out of such frustration through the metaphor of journeying toward Atlantis in his poem of 1941. [135] While travelling, he advises the one setting out, you will meet with many definitions of the goal in view, only realising at the end that the way has all the time led inward. [136]

Epic narratives

A few late-19th century verse narratives complement the genre fiction that was beginning to be written at the same period. Two of them report the disaster that overtook the continent as related by long-lived survivors. In Frederick Tennyson's Atlantis (1888), an ancient Greek mariner sails west and discovers an inhabited island which is all that remains of the former kingdom. He learns of its end and views the shattered remnant of its former glory, from which a few had escaped to set up the Mediterranean civilisations. [137] In the second, Mona, Queen of Lost Atlantis: An Idyllic Re-embodiment of Long Forgotten History (Los Angeles CA 1925) by James Logue Dryden (1840–1925), the story is told in a series of visions. A Seer is taken to Mona's burial chamber in the ruins of Atlantis, where she revives and describes the catastrophe. There follows a survey of the lost civilisations of Hyperborea and Lemuria as well as Atlantis, accompanied by much spiritualist lore. [138]

William Walton Hoskins (1856–1919) admits to the readers of his Atlantis and other poems (Cleveland OH, 1881), that he is only 24. Its melodramatic plot concerns the poisoning of the descendant of god-born kings. The usurping poisoner is poisoned in his turn, following which the continent is swallowed in the waves. [139] Asian gods people the landscape of The Lost Island (Ottawa 1889) by Edward Taylor Fletcher (1816–97). An angel foresees impending catastrophe and that the people will be allowed to escape if their semi-divine rulers will sacrifice themselves. [140] A final example, Edward N. Beecher's The Lost Atlantis or The Great Deluge of All (Cleveland OH, 1898) is just a doggerel vehicle for its author's opinions: that the continent was the location of the Garden of Eden that Darwin's theory of evolution is correct, as are Donnelly's views. [141]

Atlantis was to become a theme in Russia following the 1890s, taken up in unfinished poems by Valery Bryusov and Konstantin Balmont, as well as in a drama by the schoolgirl Larisa Reisner. [142] One other long narrative poem was published in New York by George V. Golokhvastoff. His 250-page The Fall of Atlantis (1938) records how a high priest, distressed by the prevailing degeneracy of the ruling classes, seeks to create an androgynous being from royal twins as a means to overcome this polarity. When he is unable to control the forces unleashed by his occult ceremony, the continent is destroyed. [143]

Music

The Spanish composer Manuel de Falla worked on a dramatic cantata based on Verdaguer's L'Atlántida, during the last 20 years of his life. [144] The name has been affixed to symphonies by Janis Ivanovs (1941), [145] Richard Nanes, [146] and Vaclav Buzek (2009). [147] There was also the symphonic celebration of Alan Hovhaness: "Fanfare for the New Atlantis" (Op. 281, 1975). [148]

The Bohemian-American composer and arranger Vincent Frank Safranek wrote Atlantis (The Lost Continent) Suite in Four Parts I. Nocturne and Morning Hymn of Praise, II. A Court Function, III. "I Love Thee" (The Prince and Aana), IV. The Destruction of Atlantis, for military (concert) band in 1913. [149]


News Briefs 22-08-2016

Leonora Piper
Michael Tymn, author of Resurrecting Leonora Piper, has an interesting article in the Sep/Oct issue of Atlantis Rising called “Shuffling off the Mortal Cord: What Should We Expect of Our Death?”

Geologist makes controversial claim that mysterious tracks in Turkey were created by an unknown civilization millions of years ago.

For anyone who’s interested, here’s Alexander Koltypin’s website — Earth before the Flood: Disappeared Continents and Civilizations — with his unique versions of hollow Earth theory, various catastrophes that affected Earth (how Earth’s moon showed up a few million years ago), prehistoric timelines, and more.

Until about an hour ago, I’d never heard of Greg Carlwood or his The Higherside Chats: Conspiracy and Paranormal Podcast, Sylvie’ Ivanowa, her new newearth YouTube channel, Alexander Koltypin — or, for that matter, Cornmo, whose new song for The Higherside Chats debuts in the YouTube linked above.

All of which is just what the Woo Patrol hates most — someone being led down the primrose path by a DailyGrail news article.

Russian to Conclusions
I certainly appreciate the willingness to challenge orthodoxy and cast all assumptions to the wind.

It is ironic that the timeline of so-called “civilization” (e.g., from the start of the Pharaonic Age) is shrinking, but at the same time the antiquity of man is growing! I don’t accept the Fomenko Chronology that Cara St. Louis is now promoting (on THC and elsewhere), but I’ve personally trimmed a 1000 years off of the Academic chronology and brought it into line with the field of Catastrophism. It wasn’t necessary to conclude that pivotal figures of history such as Charlemagne never existed (as Fomenko has done).

Cows
This is actually really sad. They lost their main source of income and the family patriarch. Tragic.


1 The Fuente Magna Bowl

The Fuente Magna Bowl is a large stone container, like a bowl, that was discovered in 1958 by a farmer near Lake Titicaca in Bolivia. The artifact was taken to the Museo de los Metales Preciosos where it sat for almost forty years before two researchers attempted to examine the object. It had beautiful engravings of zoological motifs all around the bowl, along with what appeared to be Sumerian cuneiform script. That raised many questions. How did an artifact from the Andes come to have Sumerian script on it? These are ancient civilizations thousands of miles away from each other. Archaeologists attempted to decipher the script but were unable to do so because they couldn’t grasp the type of cuneiform it was.

A linear script expert was brought it, Dr. Clyde Winters, and he determined the bowl was probably Proto-Sumerian, similar to objects recovered from Mesopotamia. Dr. Winters likens the cuneiform script to writing used in the Sahara 5,000 years ago, which was used by Proto-Dravidians, Proto-Elamites, as well as Proto-Sumerians. All these civilizations began in Middle Africa, until the desertification occurred after 3500 BCE. Dr. Winters deciphered part of the script and what they show is incredible. The bowl was reportedly used to make drink offerings, libations, to the Goddess Nia to request fertility. Nia is the Linear A term for Neith, which is the Greek name for the Egyptian Goddess Neit, who is very popular among the ancient civilizations that began in Libya and parts of Middle Africa. The bowl’s discovery opens the door to new theories on the never-before thought-of trans-Atlantic crossings between the ancient peoples of Sumeria and those of Bolivia.


Watch the video: Anorthosite: The rare mineral geologists say is key to solving the climate crisis (May 2022).