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Why is the Jewel Voice Broadcast called that?

Why is the Jewel Voice Broadcast called that?



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I can't seem to find out the reason behind the naming of the audio Jewel Voice Broadcast.

I learned that this broadcast was the first instance of the Emperor directly communicating to masses. I can speculate that perhaps this had something to do with the naming. Or perhaps the voice of Emperor was called so in veneration. Or maybe it's just a transliteration of Gyokuon-hōsō (which still begs the question why it was compared with Jewels).


"Jewel Voice" is most likely an overly-literal translation of 玉音放送. A better translation might be "(The) Emperor's Voice".

The 玉 character means "jade", which can also be translated as "jewel". But jade has special significance in Japanese culture, often associated with royalty and divinity. In ancient Chinese history, which had a big influence on Japanese culture, many divine rituals involved jade; the prime deity of Daoism is the Jade Emperor.

This usage carried over into Japan, where the voice of the Emperor can also be called 鹤音 or "Crane's Voice" - the crane also has special significance in Japanese culture.


Whatever Happened To Jewel?

Jewel (full name Jewel Kilcher) burst onto the music scene in 1995 with her debut album, Pieces of You. The record went on to sell over 12 million copies worldwide, which is more than a little impressive. Since then, this musician has continued to extend her discography, releasing eight studio albums, two holiday records, a greatest hits collection, and two albums of children's songs, as of this writing in 2019. Alongside her dexterous music career, Jewel also ventured into writing and acting, before seemingly retreating from the spotlight altogether.

While die-hard fans of the folk-turned-pop-turned-country singer will know that Jewel has stayed busy over the years, it's undeniable that her music has been reaching a much smaller audience since her hey-day in the '90s. Let's take a look at what Jewel has been up to in recent years.


The Voice of America (VOA) is a dynamic international multimedia broadcaster with service in more than 40 languages. Serving an estimated weekly global audience of 278 million, VOA provides news, information, and cultural programming through the Internet, mobile and social media, radio, and television. VOA is funded by the U.S. Government through the U.S. Agency for Global Media.

The Voice of America began broadcasting in 1942 to combat Nazi propaganda with accurate and unbiased news and information. Ever since then, VOA has served the world with a consistent message of truth, hope and inspiration.

For an extensive look back at VOA's history, click here.

In 2017, VOA celebrated 75 years on the air. Here's our webpage dedicated to the momentous anniversary.


Why Japan's 1945 surrender speech is almost incomprehensible

On Saturday, the Imperial Household Agency released a digital version of the original 1945 Hirohito speech announcing Japan's surrender.

The 4 ½-minute speech that has reverberated throughout Japan's modern history since it was delivered by Emperor Hirohito at the end of World War II has come back to life in digital form.

Hirohito's "jewel voice" — muffled and nearly inaudible due to poor sound quality — was broadcast on Aug. 15, 1945, announcing Japan's surrender.

On Saturday, the Imperial Household Agency released the digital version of the original sound ahead of the 70th anniversary of the speech and the war's end. In it, the emperor's voice appears clearer, slightly higher and more intense, but, Japanese today would still have trouble understanding the arcane language used by Hirohito.

"The language was extremely difficult," said Tomie Kondo, 92, who listened to the 1945 broadcast in a monitoring room at public broadcaster NHK, where she worked as a newscaster. "It's well written if you read it, but I'm afraid not many people understood what he said."

"Poor reception and sound quality of the radio made it even worse," she said. "I heard some people even thought they were supposed to fight even more. I think the speech would be incomprehensible to young people today."

Inheritance, fairness, and the billionaire class

Every Japanese knows a part of the speech where Hirohito refers to his resolve for peace by "enduring the unendurable and suffering what is insufferable," a phrase repeatedly used in news and dramas about the war.

When people heard that part 70 years ago, they understood the situation, Kondo says. But the rest is little known, largely because the text Hirohito read was deliberately written in arcane language making him sound authoritative and convincing as he sought people's understanding about Japan's surrender.

Amid growing concern among many Japanese over nationalist Prime Minister Shinzo Abe's push to expand Japan's military role, the current Emperor Akihito is increasingly seen as liberal and pacifist, and the effort by his father, Hirohito, to end the war has captured national attention.

Speaking in unique intonation that drops at the end of sentences, Hirohito opens his 1945 address with Japan's decision to accept the condition of surrender. He also expresses "the deepest sense of regret" to Asian countries that cooperated with Japan to gain "emancipation" from Western colonization.

Hirohito also laments devastation caused by "a new and most cruel bomb" dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and asks everyone to stay calm while helping to reconstruct the country.

Its significance is that Hirohito, who at the time was considered a living deity, made the address, said Takahisa Furukawa, a historian at Nihon University in Tokyo.

"What's most important is the emperor reached out to the people to tell them that they had to surrender and end the war," he said. "The speech is a reminder of what it took to end the wrong war."

On the eve of the announcement, Hirohito met with top government officials to approve Japan's surrender inside a bunker dug at the palace compound.

Amid fear of violent protest by army officials refusing to end the war, the recording of Hirohito's announcement was made secretly. NHK technicians were quietly called in for the recording. At almost midnight, Hirohito appeared in his formal military uniform, and read the statement into the microphone, twice.

A group of young army officers stormed into the palace in a failed attempt to steal the records and block the surrender speech, but palace officials desperately protected the records, which were safely delivered to NHK for radio transmission the next day.

The drama of the last two days of the war leading to Hirohito's radio address was made into a film, "Japan's Longest Day," in 1967, and its remake will hit Japanese theaters on Aug. 8.


The Infamous “War of the Worlds” Radio Broadcast Was a Magnificent Fluke

On Halloween morning, 1938, Orson Welles awoke to find himself the most talked about man in America. The night before, Welles and his Mercury Theatre on the Air had performed a radio adaptation of H.G. Wells’s The War of the Worlds, converting the 40-year-old novel into fake news bulletins describing a Martian invasion of New Jersey. Some listeners mistook those bulletins for the real thing, and their anxious phone calls to police, newspaper offices, and radio stations convinced many journalists that the show had caused nationwide hysteria. By the next morning, the 23-year-old Welles’s face and name were on the front pages of newspapers coast-to-coast, along with headlines about the mass panic his CBS broadcast had allegedly inspired.

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Welles barely had time to glance at the papers, leaving him with only a horribly vague sense of what he had done to the country. He’d heard reports of mass stampedes, of suicides, and of angered listeners threatening to shoot him on sight. “If I’d planned to wreck my career,” he told several people at the time, “I couldn’t have gone about it better.” With his livelihood (and possibly even his freedom) on the line, Welles went before dozens of reporters, photographers, and newsreel cameramen at a hastily arranged press conference in the CBS building. Each journalist asked him some variation of the same basic question: Had he intended, or did he at all anticipate, that War of the Worlds would throw its audience into panic?

That question would follow Welles for the rest of his life, and his answers changed as the years went on—from protestations of innocence to playful hints that he knew exactly what he was doing all along.

Broadcast Hysteria: Orson Welles's War of the Worlds and the Art of Fake News

On the evening of October 30, 1938, radio listeners across the U.S. heard a startling report of mysterious creatures and terrifying war machines moving toward New York City. But the hair-raising broadcast was not a real news bulletin—it was Orson Welles' adaptation of the H. G. Wells classic "The War of the Worlds." A. Brad Schwartz boldly retells the story of Welles' famed radio play and its impact.

The truth can only be found among long-forgotten script drafts and the memories of Welles’s collaborators, which capture the chaotic behind-the-scenes saga of the broadcast: no one involved with War of the Worlds expected to deceive any listeners, because they all found the story too silly and improbable to ever be taken seriously. The Mercury’s desperate attempts to make the show seem halfway believable succeeded, almost by accident, far beyond even their wildest expectations.

By the end of October 1938, Welles’s Mercury Theatre on the Air had been on CBS for 17 weeks. A low-budget program without a sponsor, the series had built a small but loyal following with fresh adaptations of literary classics. But for the week of Halloween, Welles wanted something very different from the Mercury’s earlier offerings.

In a 1960 court deposition, as part of a lawsuit suing CBS to be recognized as the broadcast’s rightful co-author, Welles offered an explanation for his inspiration for War of the Worlds: “I had conceived the idea of doing a radio broadcast in such a manner that a crisis would actually seem to be happening,” he said, “and would be broadcast in such a dramatized form as to appear to be a real event taking place at that time, rather than a mere radio play.” Without knowing which book he wanted to adapt, Welles brought the idea to John Houseman, his producer, and Paul Stewart, a veteran radio actor who co-directed the Mercury broadcasts. The three men discussed various works of science fiction before settling on H.G. Wells’s 1898 novel, The War of the Worlds—even though Houseman doubted that Welles had ever read it.

The original The War of the Worlds story recounts a Martian invasion of Great Britain around the turn of the 20th century. The invaders easily defeat the British army thanks to their advanced weaponry, a “heat-ray” and poisonous “black smoke,” only to be felled by earthly diseases against which they have no immunity. The novel is a powerful satire of British imperialism—the most powerful colonizer in the world suddenly finds itself colonized—and its first generation of readers would not have found its premise implausible. In 1877, the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli had observed a series of dark lines on the Martian surface that he called canali, Italian for “channels.” In English, canali got mistranslated to “canals,” a word implying that these were not natural formations—that someone had built them. Wealthy, self-taught astronomer Percival Lowell popularized this misconception in a series of books describing a highly intelligent, canal-building Martian civilization. H. G. Wells drew liberally from those ideas in crafting his alien invasion story—the first of its kind—and his work inspired an entire genre of science fiction. By 1938, The War of the Worlds had “become familiar to children through the medium of comic strips and many succeeding novels and adventure stories,” as Orson Welles told the press the day after his broadcast.

After Welles selected the book for adaptation, Houseman passed it on to Howard Koch, a writer recently hired to script the Mercury broadcasts, with instructions to convert it into late-breaking news bulletins.  Koch may have been the first member of the Mercury to read The War of the Worlds, and he took an immediate dislike to it, finding it terribly dull and dated. Science fiction in the 1930s was largely the purview of children, with alien invaders confined to pulp magazines and the Sunday funnies. The idea that intelligent Martians might actually exist had largely been discredited. Even with the fake news conceit, Koch struggled to turn the novel into a credible radio drama in less than a week.

On Tuesday, October 25, after three days of work, Koch called Houseman to say that War of the Worlds was hopeless. Ever the diplomat, Houseman rang off with the promise to see if Welles might agree to adapt another story. But when he called the Mercury Theatre, he could not get his partner on the phone. Welles had been rehearsing his next stage production—a revival of Georg Buchner’s Danton’s Death—for 36 straight hours, desperately trying to inject life into a play that seemed destined to flop. With the future of his theatrical company in crisis, Welles had precious little time to spend on his radio series.

With no other options, Houseman called Koch back and lied. Welles, he said, was determined to do the Martian novel this week. He encouraged Koch to get back to work, and offered suggestions on how to improve the script. Koch worked through the night and the following day, filling countless yellow legal-pad pages with his elegant if frequently illegible handwriting. By sundown on Wednesday, he had finished a complete draft, which Paul Stewart and a handful of Mercury actors rehearsed the next day. Welles was not present, but the rehearsal was recorded on acetate disks for him to listen to later that night. Everyone who heard it later agreed that this stripped-down production—with no music and only the most basic sound effects—was an unmitigated disaster.

This rehearsal recording has apparently not survived, but a copy of Koch’s first draft script—likely the same draft used in rehearsal—is preserved among his papers at the Wisconsin Historical Society in Madison. It shows that Koch had already worked out much of the broadcast’s fake news style, but several key elements that made the final show so terrifyingly convincing were missing at this stage. Like the original novel, this draft is divided into two acts of roughly equal length, with the first devoted to fake news bulletins about the Martian invasion. The second act uses a series of lengthy monologues and conventional dramatic scenes to recount the wanderings of a lone survivor, played by Welles.

Most of the previous Mercury broadcasts resembled the second act of War of the Worlds the series was initially titled First Person Singular because it relied so heavily on first-person narration. But unlike the charming narrators of earlier Mercury adaptations such as Treasure Island and Sherlock Holmes, the protagonist of The War of the Worlds was a passive character with a journalistic, impersonal prose style—both traits that make for very boring monologues. Welles believed, and Houseman and Stewart agreed, that the only way to save their show was to focus on enhancing the fake news bulletins in its first act. Beyond that general note, Welles offered few if any specific suggestions, and he soon left to return to Danton’s Death.

In Welles’s absence, Houseman and Stewart tore into the script, passing their notes on to Koch for frantic, last minute rewrites. The first act grew longer and the second act got shorter, leaving the script somewhat lopsided. Unlike in most radio dramas, the station break in War of the Worlds would come about two-thirds of the way through, and not at the halfway mark. Apparently, no one in the Mercury realized that listeners who tuned in late and missed the opening announcements would have to wait almost 40 minutes for a disclaimer explaining that the show was fiction. Radio audiences had come to expect that fictional programs would be interrupted on the half-hour for station identification. Breaking news, on the other hand, failed to follow those rules. People who believed the broadcast to be real would be even more convinced when the station break failed to come at 8:30 p.m.

These revisions also removed several clues that might have helped late listeners figure out that the invasion was fake. Two moments that interrupted the fictional news-broadcast with regular dramatic scenes were deleted or revised. At Houseman’s suggestion, Koch also removed some specific mentions of the passage of time, such as one character’s reference to “last night’s massacre.” The first draft had clearly established that the invasion occurred over several days, but the revision made it seem as though the broadcast proceeded in real-time. As many observers later noted, having the Martians conquer an entire planet in less than 40 minutes made no logical sense. But Houseman explained in Run-Through, the first volume of his memoirs, that he wanted to make the transitions from actual time to fictional time as seamless as possible, in order to draw listeners into the story. Each change added immeasurably to the show’s believability. Without meaning to, Koch, Houseman, and Stewart had made it much more likely that some listeners would be fooled by War of the Worlds.


Broadcasters

Matt Vasgersian joins the Angels television broadcast team to call play-by-play in 2021. He is also in his fourth season as the play-by-play voice of ESPN&aposs Sunday Night Baseball and calls an MLB Wild Card Game each year.

The veteran broadcaster has called various regular season and playoff baseball telecasts for Fox Sports, including the Saturday "Game of the Week from 2014-17.

He was the voice of the San Diego Padres for seven seasons, and prior to that held the same role with the Milwaukee Brewers for five seasons. He also called baseball and softball, among other events, for NBC Sports during the 2004 Summer Olympics, in addition to contributing to NBC&aposs coverage of multiple Summer and Winter Olympics.

In addition to his play-by-play career, Vasgersian is widely known as the voice of the MLB: The Show video games since the games were originally introduced prior to the 2006 season.

Vasgersian also hosts MLB Network studio programming for shows such as Hot Stove and MLB Tonight and has worked for the Network since its inception in 2009.

In 2001, Vasgersian served as play-by-play lead for the XFL during its inaugural season. He also handled play-by-play for Fox Sports on their NFL and College Football BCS packages between 2005 and 2008, and previously worked for Fox Sports West from 2004-06 calling USC men&aposs basketball games.

Vasgersian began his baseball broadcasting career with the Huntington Cubs in the Appalachian League in 1991, before moving up to the Adv.-A High Desert Mavericks and Triple-A Tucson Toros.

Born in Oakland and raised in Moraga, CA, Vasgersian is a graduate of the University of Southern California and was an actor in his childhood, appearing on several television shows and films. Vasgersian and his wife, Kimberly, reside in New Jersey with their three children.

Mark Gubicza

Former Major League Baseball veteran Mark Gubicza is entering his 20th year with Bally Sports West (previously Fox Sports West). This season will mark his 15th year of providing color commentary for Angels broadcasts. Gubicza will also continue as an analyst for the Angels’ pre- and postgame shows, 𠇊ngels Live”, which he has done for the past 16 seasons.

Gubicza previously co-hosted the FS Baseball Report, which aired nationally on Fox Sports, previewing future matchups and breaking down current standings in the league. In 2004, Gubicza provided analysis for Minnesota Twins games from Los Angeles. He made his first television appearance as an analyst for FSN in April 2000 on Baseball Today and the National Sports Report. He also hosted the Southern California Baseball Report on AM570 for three years.

In his professional baseball career, Gubicza spent 14 seasons in the Major Leagues. Drafted in 1981, he went on to spend 13 seasons with the Kansas City Royals, winning a World Championship in 1985 and 20 games in 1988. In both 1988 and 1989, he was named to the AL All-Star team. He finished his career with the Angels in 1997. To honor his many accomplishments on the field, he was named to the Kansas City Royals Hall of Fame as well as the Pennsylvania Hall of Fame in 2006. He was also named to the Missouri Sports Hall of Fame, class of 2010.

Gubicza and his wife, Lisa, live in Chatsworth, Calif. and have three children, Nicolette, Chad and Ashley.

Daron Sutton

Daron Sutton returns to the Angels organization in 2021 as a television play-by-play broadcaster. He previously called Angels games on the radio during the 2000-01 seasons alongside Mario Impemba.

He previously was the television voice of the Milwaukee Brewers from 2002-06 and the Arizona Diamondbacks from 2007-12. His Major League broadcast experience began with the Atlanta Braves from 1997-99 as a pregame/postgame host for Fox Sports South, where he worked alongside his father, Hall of Famer Don Sutton, who was the Braves television color commentator. While at Fox Sports South, he also called various SEC sports for the network.

In recent years, Sutton has called college football, basketball and baseball for Fox Sports 1 and Pac-12 Networks and handled play-by-play duties for Fox Sports national baseball broadcasts from 2006-14. Sutton was also the television play-by-play voice for the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee men&aposs basketball team from 2004-13

Sutton is also the founder, Vice President and Executive Producer - Content for PerfectGame.TV. The network broadcasts live games as well as weekly shows dedicated to amateur and collegiate baseball and softball. PerfectGame.TV content has aired on MLB Network, Fox Sports, CBS Sports and MLB.com in addition to ESPNU and MLB Network Radio.

Sutton&aposs career in the broadcast industry started at CNN as a video editor and on-air anchor for CNN Sports. His first professional baseball play-by-play role came with the Jacksonville Suns in the Double-A Southern League during the 1994 season.

A 1992 graduate of Auburn University at Montgomery, Sutton played one season of minor league baseball as a pitcher in the Angels system, where he appeared in 10 games in relief for the 1992 Boise Hawks in the Northwest League.

Active in the community, Sutton is a member of the Development Committee for the Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center and hosts their annual Perfect Game Swings for Autism Golf Tournament. He is also a board member of the Tempe Sports Authority and emcee of their annual Courage Awards. Sutton and his wife, Carol, reside in Scottsdale, AZ.

Terry Smith

Terry Smith enters his 20th season on the Angels flagship radio station. The 2021 season marks his 12th season as the Angels lead play-by-play announcer. His 20 seasons in the booth make Smith the longest tenured broadcaster (radio or TV) in club history.

Smith joined the Angels in 2002 after serving as the radio voice of the New York Yankees Triple-A affiliate Columbus Clippers for 19 seasons. From 1983-97, Smith also served as Sports Director on WBNS AM in Columbus, Ohio and was simply known as “The Voice” serving as play-by-play announcer for the Ohio State University Football and Basketball Radio Network from 1986-97. Smith was recognized three times by the Ohio Associated Press for his sportscasts and WBNS AM was named the Outstanding Sports Operation in Ohio six times by the Associated Press.

Smith started his baseball broadcasting career in 1978, calling games for the Jacksonville Suns and later called games for the Memphis Chicks from 1981-82. At Memphis, Smith also worked as the Sports Director on WHBQ AM, anchoring sports on the morning and afternoon drive shows.

The Philadelphia native attended Temple University, where he played collegiate club hockey, as well as Jones College in Jacksonville, Fla. which has produced the likes of actors Joe Piscapo and Jay Thomas. In February 2002, Smith made his on-screen debut as a broadcaster in the baseball movie A Little Inside, which aired on HBO and Showtime. He assists in Angels Community Relations with appearances and has served as Honorary Chair of the Orange County Learning for Life’s Exploring program. Smith and his wife, Sonia, have one son Jordan and a daughter in-law Natalia. The Smiths reside in Queen Creek, AZ.

Mark Langston

Mark Langston enters his ninth full season on the Angels broadcast team after joining Terry Smith on the air as an analyst on a part-time basis during the 2012 regular season. During the 2019 season, Langston announced two games for the “MLB Game of the Week Live on YouTube” on July 29th (Angels vs Detroit) and September 10th (Angels vs Cleveland).

Langston pitched 16 seasons at the Major League level, including eight with the Angels. He was originally drafted by Seattle in the 1981 draft and pitched for the Mariners (1984-89) and Montreal Expos (1989) before joining the Angels prior to the 1990 season. On Apr. 11, 1990 Langston and Mike Witt combined to pitch the eighth no-hitter in Angels history and the first combined no-hitter in club history. He pitched to an 88-74 record with a 3.97 ERA in his eight seasons with the Angels before finishing his career with the San Diego Padres (1998) and Cleveland Indians (1999). A four-time All-Star, Langston also won seven Gold Glove Awards, including five straight from 1991-95 with the Angels.

After retiring, Langston became the head baseball coach at Orange Lutheran High School where he guided the Lancers to a playoff berth in 2002. In Nov. 2018, Langston was inducted into the San Jose Sports Hall of Fame.

A native of San Diego, Langston resides in Laguna Beach with his wife, Michelle. The couple has two daughters, Katie and Gabrielle.

José Mota

José Mota enters his 20th season with the Angels broadcast team. This season he will serve in a new second analyst role, providing added analysis and commentary during games on a nightly basis, in addition to continuing his role as a TV pre/postgame analyst. He is the first Latin-born former player, to be a full-time broadcaster for a Major League team. Mota also handled the in-game color analyst role for home Spanish television broadcasts during the 2013-17 seasons. From 2010-12 he worked as the English radio analyst, after serving as the play-by-play/analyst for Spanish radio broadcasts the previous eight seasons.

On Aug. 19-20, 2017, Mota handled play-by-play for the Angels radio broadcasts on AM830 and became the first MLB broadcaster to have called play-by-play on a team’s English radio/TV broadcasts and Spanish radio/TV broadcasts, as well as working as a color analyst on both platforms. In 2018, Mota assisted Vladimir Guerrero as the translator during the introductory press conference and media appearances after Guerrero was announced as part of the 2018 Baseball Hall of Fame Class. Mota translated Guerrero’s speech during the 2018 Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony in Cooperstown, becoming the first translator in the HOF ceremony’s history.

He has served as a MLB Network analyst/correspondent and handled sideline reporter/analyst work for ESPN during the inaugural World Baseball Classic in 2006 and on select Sunday Night Baseball telecasts. Additionally, he has been the color analyst and handled play-by-play duties for select national broadcasts for Saturday’s Game of the Week on FOX.

Mota has broadcasted at multiple major events such as the 2006 ALCS (FOX), the 2007 MLB All-Star Game in San Francisco (FOX) and the 2007 MLB Playoffs (TBS). In 2008, he joined Yahoo Sports as a baseball analyst, contributing video features and website articles. He has worked as MLB International’s color analyst for the worldwide broadcast of the World Baseball Classic on multiple occasions.

A bilingual talent, Mota joined the Angels in 2002 after working as a broadcaster for MLB Radio. During the 2001 season, Mota worked as a play-by-play announcer for DirecTV Latin America which provided MLB broadcast coverage to 26 Latin American countries. He has been the featured analyst for MLB Productions’ Sabor a Béisbol, a Spanish-language feature show available to national and international audiences.

From 1997 until his current appointment, Mota served as a color analyst/play-by-play announcer for the FOX baseball “Game of the Week” in Spanish, including MLB playoffs and World Series, and for the “NFL Sunday” football broadcasts. His first-ever MLB broadcast assignment was for the Los Angeles Dodgers Spanish radio in 2001.

A former Major League baseball player with the San Diego Padres (1991) and Kansas City Royals (1995), Mota was originally drafted by the Chicago White Sox in 1985. He was a two-time Collegiate All-American second baseman at Cal State Fullerton and owns a bachelors degree in Communications from CSUF. He was the starting second baseman for the 1984 National Champion Titans and was an inductee to the Cal State Fullerton Department of Communications’ Alumni Wall of Fame in 2017. In 1999, Mota made his film debut in Kevin Costner’s Universal Studios release For Love of the Game in which he portrayed Dominican shortstop “José Garcia.” He is a member of the Screen Actors Guild.

On several occasions, Mota has been honored at the Southern California Sports Broadcasters Awards as the winner for best foreign language color commentary for his radio and TV work.

He has served as the first and only full-time bilingual baseball broadcaster, as for many seasons Mota addressed both the Spanish and the English-speaking baseball audiences. Mota was chosen by OC Metro Publications as one of the “Hottest 25” personalities in Orange County for 2007. The Mota family founded the non-profit Mota’s Faces in 2011, which promotes the involvement of American youngsters in assisting impoverished school children and their families in the Dominican Republic.

A native of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, Mota is the son of Dodger legend Manny Mota. He and his family make their home in the San Gabriel Valley.


Why is the Jewel Voice Broadcast called that? - History

The History of Communication Technology

By Logan Wyman, [email protected]

The radio has been the first device to allow for mass communication. It has enabled information to be transferred far and wide, not only nationally wide but internationally as well. The development of the radio began in 1893 with Nikolai Tesla’s demonstration of wireless radio communication in St. Louis, Missouri. His work laid the foundation for those later scientists who worked to perfect the radio we now use. The man most associated with the advent of the radio is Guglielmo Marconi, who in 1986 was awarded the official patent for the radio by the British Government.

Old Time Radio


The early uses of the radio were mainly for maintaining contact between ships out a sea. However, this initial radio was unable to transmit speech, and instead sent Morse code messages back and forth between ships and stations on the land. During time of distress, a sinking ship would use a radio messaged nearby vessels and stations on the land to ask for aid. The radio saw a surge of use during the First World War. Both sides used the radio to relay messages to troops and top officials as well as people not on the battle front. At the end of the war, President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points was sent to Germany via use of the radio. After the war’s end, with the growth of radio receivers, broadcasting began in Europe and The United States.


Europe’s most famous broadcasting station, the British Broadcasting Company or BBC, began following in 1922. In fact, Marconi was one of the founding members along with other prominent leaders in the field of wireless manufacturers. Broadcasts began locally in London, but by 1925 it has spread to most of the United Kingdom. The station aired plays, classical music and variety programs. However, the newspaper industry maintained a strong hold over the new. In 1926 this all changed due to a newspaper strike in England. With no news being published it fell on the BBC to supply the information for the public. In 1927 the BBC became the British Broadcasting Corporation when it was granted it a Royal Charter. When the Second World War began all the television stations shut down and it fell on the shoulders of the radio to cover the war.

The Radio Act of 1912 required all land radio stations and ship stations to be staffed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.


Following the war radio saw its greatest advancements and a turn towards its more modern form. The devastation of Britain made its citizens look for an outlet in radio entertainment. People enjoyed listening to the music, plays and discussion that the BBC played. During the 1960s with the expansion of radio to FM more programs were played and local BBC stations opened up across England. Radio in Europe continued to expand and in the 1990s new radio stations, like Radio 1, 4 and 5 began broadcasting with genres like sports and comedy appealing to new audiences. As the BBC entered into the new millennium its popularity continued to grow. Its broadcasts of “The Century Speaks”, an oral history of the 20th century and a reading of “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone” helped to gain more listeners. In 2002 the BBC expanded to the digital market and saw its greatest expansion as new stations like 1Xtra, 5 Live, Sports Extra, 6 Music and BBC 7 were launched and World Service were made available to domestic listeners. The history of radio broadcasting in the United States followed a similar path.


Radio broadcasting in the United States started with the Westinghouse Company. The company asked Frank Conrad, one of their engineers, to start regularly broadcasting of music, while they would sell radios to pay for the service. Westinghouse applied for a commercial radio license in 1920, and started their station KDKA, the first officially government licensed radio station. The station’s first broadcast was the election returns of the Harding-Cox presidential race. Westinghouse also took out ads in the newspaper advertising radios for sale to the public. Soon, thousand of radio stations emerged that played a wide variety of broadcasts and reached people across the country that had bought or built their own receivers. The home building of receivers created a problem in the market, since people could simply build their own radios rather than going out to buy them and the government was forced to step in. To curb this a government-sanctioned agreement created the Radio Corporation Agreements, RCA, was formed to manage the patents for the technology of the receiver and transmitter. Companies like General Electric and Westinghouse were allowed to make receivers while Western Electric was allowed to build transmitters. Also in the agreements, AT&T was made the only station that was allowed to engage in toll broadcasting and chain broadcasting. This paved the way for the next step in radio development in America, radio advertising.

KDKA - The first offically licensed radio station in Pittsburgh, Pa.

WEAF, an AT&T station in New York broadcasted the first radio advertisement in 1923. Even with the RCA agreements, other station began radio advertising. Most of the other radio stations were owned by private businesses and were used exclusively to sell that company’s products. The RCA agreements did create a problem though, it gave AT&T a monopoly over toll broadcasting and therefore radio advertisements. To break the monopoly, NBC and CBS were created and became the first radio networks in the late 1920s era. Walter Cronkite and Edward R. Murrow became the first radio journalists, and by the end of the decade the radio had become an important source for news in America. In the next decade war in Europe again broke out and it fell on the radio to cover it. The radio acted to pacify and assuage the worries of a confused and scared public. More importantly the radio helped to pull together the nation’s moral and backing of the war effort. With the end of the war in 1945 television saw its rise to prominence and radio began to go on a slow but steady decline. But in the 1950’s thanks to Rock and Roll the radio saw new life.


Following the Second World War the radio turned into its more recognizable for of musical entertainment. AM stations played a top-40 time and temperature format, which meant they played popular three minute songs in constant rotation. All programming and music became aimed at a target audience of ages twelve to thirty five, newly emerging “middle class”. The sixties and seventies also saw the rise of FM radio. The new music that FM aired began to pose a threat to the old top-40 music AM stations still played in rotation, and the growing music of the hippie and psychedelic generation took over the FM airwaves. Through the 80s and 90s radio broadcasting continued to expand. Thousands of more stations sprung up playing all different kinds of music, world, pop, rock, jazz, classical, etc… However, in the 21st century the radio has reached its greatest heights.
With the year 2000 the radio expanded into the satellite and internet markets. The need for live DJ’s is dwindling since everything can be done via a computer all the editing and broadcasting can be done using hard drive of a computer. Jobs that used to take hours to do can now be done with the simple click of a mouse. Car companies have paired up with satellite radio stations like XM radio to offer special deals on satellite radios which offer every kind of music, news, and entertainment stations one could ask for.

XM Radio is a popular form of entertainment in the United States.


From a tiny receiver that could transmit only sounds to a complex device with satellites in space and wireless systems in cars, the radio has seen tremendous development. The purpose of the radio, however, has remained constant. From its inception the radio was created to communicate messages in mass for. Whether it be strictly news stories like in its early days, or binging new music to fans across the nation information is always being shared via this device. In almost every country radios are present, and in some it is a primary means for communication. Without its invention our world would be vastly different, it offered the first true means of mass communication and allowed leaders and people alike to impart valuable information to each other with the ease and efficiency.


The Atomic Bomb

Japan was close to surrendering as long as they can maintain the Emperor. Following these events, Emperor Hirohito intervened and ordered the supreme council for the Direction of the war to accept the terms the Allies has set down in the Potsdam Declaration for ending the war. After several more days of behind the sense negotiations and a failed coup d’état, Emperor Hirohito gave a recorded radio address across the empire on August is. In the radio address called the Jewel voice Broadcast, he announced the surrender of Japan to the Allies.

The Dropping of the atomic Bomb was morally and legally wrong. Moral and legal prohibitions against the use of weapons of mass destruction n war existed before the Second World War because of their indiscriminate and listing impact on soldiers and civilians caught downwind

The decision to use the weapon was racially motivated. All of the America’s enemies were stereotyped and caricatured in home front propaganda but there was a clear difference in nature of that propaganda. Although there were crude references of Germans as “Krauts” and Italians as “Tonies or “spughetts” the vast majority of ridicule was directed at their political leadership. Hitler Nazis and Italy’s Mussolini were routinely caricatured but the Germans and Italian people weren’t. By contrast anti-Japanese racism in American society targeted the Japanese as a race of people and demonstrated a level of hatred comparable with Nazi anti-Jewish propaganda. The Japanese were Universally caricatured as having buck teeth, massive fangs with saliva and monstrous thick glasses through which they leered with squinty eyes. They were further dehumanized as being snakes, cockroaches and rats and their entire culture was mocked including language, customs and religious beliefs.

I think that there was no reason for the decision to use the Atomic Bombs on the Japanese cites of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Canadian Connection to the Atomic Bomb

Most Canadians are unwear of the crucial role Canada played in the development of the atomic bombs that destroyed Hiroshiam and Nagasaki. From the outset of the Manhattan project, the Canadian government cooperated with the British and American government to ensure that the Allies would develop the nuclear bomb before the Axis power. Some Canadians were unwitting participants in the development of the bomb. Men of the Sahtugotline people a nomadic group of Aboriginal people who lived near Great Bear lake, were hided as transporters for the uranium. Despite warnings from federal government scientist about the dangers of radioactive substances, the Sagtugotine were allowed to carry tonnes of uranium without being provided with any protective clothing and were not warned about the dangers they faced. The men covered in uranium dust brought the radioactive material into their tents thereby unknowingly contaminating their families. They hardly had any men live till they were 65 because that all dead of cancer.

Canada had a major role in the actual constructing of the atomic bombs, especially ‘Little Boy’. When scientists were trying to figure out how much uranium was needed in the bomb, Canada made a crucial calculation that ended up being much less than the Americans originally thought. Without this calculation the bomb would not have been made properly. Canada also helped in the making of the first plutonium atomic bomb, Trinity. A Canadian scientist named Louis Slotin, played a major role in assembling the core of Trinity. Not long after Trinity was made, ‘Fat Man’ was also made using almost the exact same design. So essentially, Canada did help in the design of ‘Fat Man’.

Canada also gave the project many resources and space. Most of the uranium used for the project came from Northern Canada, especially from the shores of Great Bear Lake. As well, all uranium refineries in the world were under Nazi control, all accept for one, the Eldorado Refinery in Port Hope, Ontario. This is where all of the uranium used for ‘Little Boy’ went through. Not only did Canada produce the uranium, but they also offered a safe area, far from the battlefields, where scientists could work.

Some Canadian celebrate the county’d role in the atomic bomb as a great technological accomplishment: meany other are ashamed of Canada’s contribution to the development of the weapons of mass destruction.


Contents

Little has been revealed about Kikyō's childhood, aside from the fact she was born in Japan during the Feudal Era. Her parents died sometime after her younger sister Kaede was born. At some point in her youth, Kikyō decided to pursue an occupational role as a priestess and looked after Kaede, who also trained to become a priestess. As part of their training, Kikyō and Kaede wandered the countryside and slew many demons. During their travels, Kikyō and Kaede encountered Tsubaki, a woman who would later become a dark priestess, and briefly fought against demons together. When they parted ways, Tsubaki put a curse on Kikyō so that should she ever fall in love, she would inevitably die a violent death. While Kikyō was well aware of Tsubaki's curse, she was not unsettled by it because she believed she would never fall in love. [Note 1]

Upon returning to their village, one of the villagers revealed to Kikyō that a demon slayer had come in search of her that morning. The demon slayer returned that night with his fellow slayers and entrusted her with the task of purifying the Jewel of Four Souls, much to Tsubaki's dismay. After Kikyō took custody of the Sacred Jewel, she dedicated her life to guarding and protecting it from the wicked humans and demons who sought it for their own selfish means. However, her duty as the Jewel's protector also meant that she could not show any signs of weakness, lest demons or evil men should take advantage of her, thus she was unable to enjoy the ordinary pleasures of her youth (e.g. burning perfume incense, coloring her lips and cheeks, etc.).

One night during a new moon, Kikyō unknowingly encountered Inuyasha shortly after a strenuous battle to protect the Jewel. Soon after passing out from exhaustion, she was aided by her sister and several villagers. She was pleased that Inuyasha, who remained unseen, did not kill her. Eventually, Inuyasha made himself known to Kikyō and attempted to steal the Shikon Jewel. Kikyō sensed that Inuyasha was just a half-demon, deduced he wanted the Jewel to become a full-blooded demon, and ultimately decided to spare his life. Inuyasha noted Kikyō reeked of the stench of demon blood before they parted company, thus she began to cleanse herself daily to rid herself of this odor. Later, Inuyasha made a second attempt on the Sacred Jewel and Kikyō easily subdued him again, but not before learning his name. Kikyō, feeling a great sense of empathy towards Inuyasha, spared his life once more and warned him against his pursuit for the Sacred Jewel.

After Inuyasha slew Mistress Centipede to save Kaede, Kikyō sensed that Mistress Centipede's corpse still contained demonic power and chose to place her remains in the Bone Eaters Well as a precaution. During their first non-violent encounter following Mistress Centipede's demise, Kikyō thanked Inuyasha for saving Kaede's life and confided in him her personal feelings of loneliness and similarities towards Inuyasha. Inuyasha sympathized with her and asked Kikyō to meet him again the next day to receive a gift. That night, Kikyō enchanted beads to help her subjugate Inuyasha to her whims and prevent him from doing any more wrong. They next day, after Inuyasha gifted her with his deceased mother's rouge, Kikyō decided against placing the Beads of Subjugation on him and instead claimed that she'd forgotten his gift and apologized for that. Around this time, she secretly harbored and tended to Onigumo, a paralyzed bandit with burn scars all over his body. Believing Inuyasha would overreact from jealousy, Kikyō asked Kaede to not tell him about treating the wounded Onigumo.

Kikyō was later asked to slay a demon from another country and approached Inuyasha for help. The two succeeded in defeating this demon and returned home afterwards. Kaede later revealed to Kikyō the disturbing things Onigumo voiced regarding Kikyō during her mission with Inuyasha, but Kikyō pitted him and brushed off the incident. Sometime after this, Tsubaki sensed Kikyō's spiritual powers waning after she fell in love with Inuyasha and tried to steal the Sacred Jewel. However, Kikyō reflected Tsubaki's curse back at her and then spared a humiliated Tsubaki's life. Meanwhile, Onigumo is met by a spider demon who offered to fulfill his dreams of mobility, obtaining the Sacred Jewel, and attaining the lovely Kikyō herself. Agreeing with the terms, Onigumo offered his body to a horde of demons, and thus, the demon shape-shifter Naraku was born.

At some unknown point, Kikyō and Inuyasha sailed to an island that only appeared every fifty years. The pair encountered a band of half-demons but were attacked by the Shitōshin. During the fight, the demon Gōra used Kikyō's blood to create a doppelgänger of her, unbeknownst to her, and Inuyasha received the Mark of the Four War Gods. With the island hidden once more and out of reach, Kikyō and Inuyasha decide to return home.

Eventually, Kikyō's village is attacked by a horde of demons sent by Naraku. With her spiritual powers weakened, Kikyō didn't sense the collective demon's aura and accidentally injured Kaede during the battle, resulting in the permanent loss of her eye. Following the battle, a guilt-ridden Kikyō suggested using the Shikon Jewel to turn Inuyasha into a human, an offer to which Inuyasha agreed. If this plan had in fact worked, it might have been possible for Kikyō to carry on the life of an ordinary woman alongside Inuyasha, and for him to finally feel like he belonged somewhere as a human. She promised to deliver the Shikon Jewel to Inuyasha on a certain day. However, Naraku desired a corrupted Sacred Jewel and wished for Kikyō to kill Inuyasha herself, and thus resorted to manipulation to set their plan astray. Naraku disguised himself as Inuyasha and struck down Kikyō, and then attacked Inuyasha while disguised as Kikyō, pitting them against each other.

Thinking that Inuyasha had betrayed her, Kikyō summoned the last ounce of her strength and spiritual power to stop Inuyasha, who attacked the village for the Shikon Jewel. However, unable to kill the man she loved with her sacred arrow, Kikyō instead shot a sealing arrow at Inuyasha to pin him to the Goshinboku, where Inuyasha remained in slumber for fifty years. She then instructed Kaede to burn her body along with the Shikon Jewel so that its immeasurable power would never be used for evil again. However, because Kikyō was full of bitter hatred for Inuyasha at the time of her death, the Shikon Jewel became corrupted. Although, because of her love, Kikyō wished to see Inuyasha again and the Shikon Jewel used this desire to return to the world of the living five centuries later through Kagome Higurashi, Kikyō's reincarnation.

During the Story

Fifty years later, an Oni witch named Urasue stole Kikyō's remains and some graveyard soil to create a new body for her out of clay and bones. However, Urasue was disturbed to find out that the body she created would not entirely animate without its spirit and soul. She quickly realized that it was because her spirit and soul had already been reincarnated into another body, and that Kagome's soul, being the reincarnation of Kikyō, was needed in order to completely animate Kikyō's clay body. When the lifeless body was infused with Kagome's soul, Kikyō was revived, immediately turning on Urasue and burning her to death. Having yet to discover what truly happened fifty years before, her immediate priority was to kill Inuyasha. She nearly succeeded in this task until Kagome's body began recalling the soul back to her own body, which effectively stopped Kikyō from completing her goal. Kikyō managed to retain a part of her soul though, and thus was able to escape into the mist, where she was pursued by Inuyasha. Quickly thereafter, Kikyō fell off a nearby cliff, presumed dead by the group.

Kikyō survived the fall and moved to a small village, tending to the wounded and curing the sick. She was loved by the children and the villagers respected her. However, she was faced with an internal struggle with what she had become, not a living woman, nor a dead person, but the walking dead. She wanted to live peacefully in the village, but was troubled by the thought that even such a simple existence may be forbidden. A curious monk sensed something abnormal about the resurrected priestess and intended to find out her true nature. He spotted her absorbing the souls of deceased women as a means to sustain her clay body, using her soul collectors, the shinidamachū. The monk tried to lay her soul to rest by attacking her with one of his spiritual demons called the "Demon binding spell", but Kikyō used her spiritual power to blast the demon to pieces. The monk was killed by a piece of the demon that struck him in the neck. Before he died, the monk asked Kikyō why she continued to wander this earth as the walking dead. He told her that time continues for the living, but it does not continue for the dead, thus the dead do not belong in such a place, and such an existence is tragic. While Kikyō pondered on what the monk had said, she discovered that Sayo, a child who was very fond of Kikyō, had watched the entire scene and was now terrified of her. Saddened, Kikyō gave up on living in the village and left, apologizing to Sayo for scaring her.

After leaving the village, Kikyō tried to spend the night alone in a forest, placing a barrier around her to prevent being noticed. However, Kagome was able to cross Kikyō's barrier. Filled with jealousy towards her living reincarnation, Kikyō paralyzed Kagome with her touch and bound her to a tree so that Inuyasha could neither see nor hear Kagome when he arrived. When Kagome tried to explain to Kikyō the true circumstances of her death, Kikyō dismissed her, saying whoever caused her death is unimportant, as it cannot bring her back to life. A dead person like herself wished only to live again, which cannot be granted, so she instead wished not to be forgotten. This can be achieved through deepening bitterness, enabling the dead to live in the heart of the living. Before Kagome could convince Kikyō otherwise, Inuyasha arrived. Kikyō told Inuyasha he must despise her for collecting souls to drive her vengeance, but Inuyasha told her he could not stop loving her, even if she hates him. Moved, Kikyō kissed him and professed her love in his arms. Sensing that Kikyō's body lacks warmth, Inuyasha realized that he could not help her and wished time stopped, to which Kikyō responded by attempting to take him with her to the Netherworld. However, Kagome was able to reach Inuyasha with her voice in time, and Inuyasha left Kikyō to free Kagome from the tree. Kikyō, heart-broken, asked if Kagome was more important to him than herself, and left with her soul collectors, telling Inuyasha not to forget that her feelings when they kissed were true. Afterwards, she visited Kaede and learned that Naraku was responsible for her death and separation from Inuyasha.

Kikyō then moved to a temple, healing the wounds of soldiers. When men from the palace asked her to heal their master's disease, Kikyō unwillingly accompanied them to the palace, only to discover a dark aura around the castle. Kikyō was disturbed to find that the master of the castle was already dead from the neck and down. As it turned out, the master of the castle was the man who once called himself Onigumo before he was born as Naraku. Kikyō tried to leave the palace, but couldn't and thus, Naraku erected a barrier that prevented her Shikigami from accessing it, which rendered her powerless.

Under the assumption that he could control Kikyō, Naraku attached a corrupted fragment of the Shikon Jewel to a soul and placed it within the priestess before sending her after Kagome. The corrupted shard is not enough to control Kikyō, however, and she destroys Naraku's golem. When Kagome arrives, she is subdued by Kikyō's Shikigami. Kikyō tells Kagome that Naraku fears her and wished to control Kikyō and force her into fighting Kagome, but that she had not fallen so low that she, the keeper of the Jewel of Four Souls, would be controlled by a mere fragment. Kikyō then forcefully takes Kagome's Jewel shards, and pushes her down a hole onto the roots of the trees that reveals a person's darkest fears. Once Inuyasha arrived to save Kagome, she left while laughing at Inuyasha, as he could not fight a woman he still loved. Kikyō returns to Naraku's castle, breaking the barrier he had erected to keep Inuyasha away. She then mocks him, explaining to him that his petty feats of minor sorcery does not work on her, and willingly hands over the shards that she had stolen from Kagome, further mocking him by saying that he needs the power of the jewel shards more than anyone due to being a half demon. Kikyō, now finally feeling the freedom that she did not have in her past life, stated that once Naraku gained all of the shards of the sacred Shikon Jewel, she would purify him along with the Jewel and send his evil and corrupt spirit to the Netherworld.

When Naraku confronted Kikyō again and threatened to kill her, she announced that he could not kill her, as Naraku still had the heart of Onigumo and Onigumo loved her with all his wicked heart. Naraku sent a giant soul collector to steal the souls that Kikyō used to sustain herself in order to kill her indirectly, but Kikyō managed to escape, and Inuyasha found and saved her. When Kikyō told Inuyasha that Naraku still harbored feelings for her, a disgusted Inuyasha takes her into his arms and tells her he is the only one who could love and protect her. Though Kikyō pretended to comply, she later wielded a knife to his neck and left after telling Inuyasha that she would use Naraku's weak spot in order to purify him and the Shikon Jewel. Watching Inuyasha call after her, Kikyō thought to herself that the string of fate (with Inuyasha) could not be rejoined since it had already been cut, implying that she could no longer return to him. Α]

Later, Naraku made a second attempt to kill Kikyō by prematurely getting rid of his human heart, but he stopped himself, realizing that he was much weaker without his human heart. Some time afterwards, Naraku left to Mount Hakurei in order to strengthen himself, and succeeded in both completely removing his human heart and becoming much stronger. He confronted Kikyō, and when she asked him what his true objective was, he responded by wounding her chest, belittling her inability to bleed, and pushed her into a river of his poisonous miasma, presumably killing her.

Much later, villagers told Inuyasha's group of a mysterious person known as Saint Hijiri who was rumored to be extremely powerful. Inuyasha encounters her with two Shikigami that had human form: Kochō and Asuka, who told him that Kikyō survived but her body was ravaged by miasma and her voice was lost. Kochō and Asuka assisted Kikyō by bringing Kagome to a waterfall, where Kikyō's severely injured and weakened body lay submerged under the water. They told Kagome that she was the only one able to save Kikyō, and stated that by rubbing some of the soil from Kikyō's grave site into her wounds, she would successfully save Kikyō's life. Kagome agreed to perform this task, and in doing so, witnessed in a dream the events that occurred between Inuyasha and Kikyō fifty years previously. She passed out during the process of purifying the wounds Naraku had inflicted upon Kikyō, but seemingly saved Kikyō by temporarily purifying the wounds in Kikyō's chest. Recovering, Kikyō had Kochō and Asuka bring Inuyasha to her, giving him an arrow covered in Onigumo's cave dirt to be used against Naraku. She would later be forced to create a Mayose spell to kill demon rats released by Hakudōshi to drive her out for Naraku once he realized she survived the attack at Mount Hakurei.

Kikyō gave her shikigami a lock of her hair to find Naraku's heart they nearly succeeded, only for Kohaku to destroy them before they could reach the Infant. She saw his heart was his own, yet followed Naraku's orders. Questioning him, Kikyō came face-to-face with Naraku, who she couldn't sense approaching thanks to the Fuyōheki. She was nearly decapitated by Kohaku on Naraku's order, but Inuyasha's arrival forced him to retreat. Both she and Inuyasha exchanged intel about Naraku, and she left to find the Infant. She came across it and Kanna, realizing the Fuyōheki was the blue stone the Infant held. However, Mōryōmaru attacked her, and left with her targets. Kikyō would later come across Mōryōmaru again, when he was trying to take Kōga's shards (in the anime), firing an arrow that severed his lower body. When the demon took off, Kikyō noticed two things: Mōryōmaru seemed to have a soul now, and that she was exhausted after firing a single arrow. This meant something was wrong. At night, she was amazed to see two novice monks get past the barrier she had conjured up while recovering. She collapsed, realizing she didn't have much time.

In truth, Kagome's purification powers proved insufficient and Kikyō's wounds reopened. This drove Kikyō to fuse the soul of Midoriko, the all-powerful priestess who created the sacred Shikon jewel, into her own body to close her wounds and hold out the miasma until she could defeat Naraku before she died. Inuyasha arrived to witness the wounds in Kikyō's chest healing very quickly, and she explained to him that since Midoriko was also a priestess who died fighting yōkai, she would understand Kikyō's desire to defeat Naraku. She also told Inuyasha that Naraku could not be killed with the Tessaiga the only way to completely destroy Naraku was by purifying both his soul and the Shikon Jewel the instant Naraku completes the entire jewel. Kohaku, arriving at the scene by Midoriko's will, overheard what Kikyō told Inuyasha and decided to follow Kikyō in order to aid Kikyō's plan to defeat Naraku. She left promptly saying she had no time hesitate, leaving Inuyasha to think to himself that Kikyō's plan involved removing Kohaku's life-sustaining shard, and that Kikyō could not be capable of doing such a thing.

Kohaku later offered Kikyō his shard to use against Naraku, and Kikyō allowed him to travel by her side, but wished to herself that they had met on different terms so that she could have nurtured his scarred soul and encouraged him to live. While traveling with Kohaku, she kept the Shikon Shard in Kohaku's neck extremely pure, rendering it untouchable to Naraku. During her journey, she saved Kōga and asked that he hand over his shards to her, telling him her plan to purify the Shikon Jewel once it is complete, but Kōga refused. She later encountered Sango and Kagome, who begged Kikyō not to take Kohaku's life and trust in Inuyasha, who was continually working to strengthen his sword, to defeat Naraku.

Naraku tried capturing her in spider webs, resorting to capturing an innocent child in them to force Kikyō to touch them. She sent Kohaku away with her shikigami to keep Naraku's contamination from defiling his shard. She attempted purifying the webs, but found herself unable to while being shown the day she died repeatedly. Meanwhile, Miroku and Inuyasha battled Naraku, during which Miroku opened his Wind tunnel and sucked in an enormous amount of miasma. Miroku was near death, but Kikyō saved him by absorbing and purifying the miasma in her body, although this greatly worsened her own body's condition.

Kikyō and Kohaku encountered Naraku's spiderwebs during their travels together. He used these spiderwebs as a way to contaminate and weaken Kikyō. However, Kikyō had already realized Naraku's plan and remained under her own incredibly strong and powerful spiritual barrier. However, she contaminated herself when she attempted to save a child from the webs. She summoned her Shikigami Kochō and Asuka to place a barrier over Kohaku in order to protect him from Naraku's reach, however, due to the fact that she was entangled in Naraku's spiderwebs, she became defiled and the barrier over Kohaku was broken by one of Naraku's incarnations, Byakuya and Kochō and Asuka is destroyed by Byakuya. She told Kagome, who had also been defiled by Naraku's webs, that the only way to save her life was by acquiring the longbow from the sacred Mount Azusa, but only if it was truly what she wished. Kagome traveled to Mount Azusa, where she was tested by an illusion cast upon her by the Spirit Guardian of the sacred mountain. After passing the test, Kagome and Inuyasha returned to find that Naraku had already captured Kikyō.

The strong connection between Kagome and Kikyō was shown when Kagome was successfully able to tell Kikyō's thoughts by shooting her with the longbow and arrow she had obtained from Mount Azusa at the right time. Kikyō, shot by the sacred longbow from Mount Azusa, fired the sacred arrow from her own body at Naraku. The Jewel was purified before it entered Naraku's body, but Naraku won against Kikyō's powers and successfully contaminated the Shikon Jewel, rendering Kikyō completely powerless and on the verge of death.

Inuyasha and Kikyō spend time together before her death.

Though Naraku declared his victory and Kikyō's defeat, Kikyō thinks to herself that Naraku will find out about that after he dies as she had let a sliver of purifying light in the Shikon Jewel. While Kagome grieves that her powers were insufficient to save Kikyō, Kikyō told Kagome in her spirit that she was able to save her soul.

The wounds Kikyō sustained from saving Miroku from Naraku's miasma spread, and she lay in Inuyasha's arms until night fall. They talked about their past, and how Naraku poisoned their love for each other. She then saw something she had never seen before: Inuyasha was crying. Inuyasha told Kikyō she was the first person he ever cared for or loved, making him feel terrible for being unable to save her. However, Kikyō tells him that the fact he came is all that matters. They share a final kiss before she dies as she turns into a luminous sphere of light. Rather than return to Kagome's body, Kikyō's spirit was gathered by her Soul Collectors and ascended to the twinkling stars where she is finally able to rest in peace.

The speck of purity Kikyō had left in the defiled Shikon Jewel remained after her death and this prevented Naraku from taking the last shard out of Kohaku's neck, until Magatsuhi defiled it and sealed Kagome's spiritual powers, preventing her from purifying it again. He was possessed by this demon and left in order to give Naraku the last shard, meanwhile being forced to relive his painful past through an illusion in his sleep. In this illusion, one of Kikyō's soul-collectors lead Kohaku out of his past, to his sister, who asks for his help and encourages him. He was successfully brought out of this illusion and released from Magatsuhi's possession, and Kohaku gained the strength to stop running from his past and continue to live. However, after a struggle with Naraku, Kohaku has his shard removed, killing him. Naraku mocks Inuyasha's inability to prevent the deaths of both Kikyō and Kohaku, and Sango holds him in tears. Had Naraku absorbed the completed Shikon Jewel, Kikyō's light would have purified it and killed Naraku. However, Kikyō decides to leave the task of defeating Naraku to Inuyasha's group and transfers her speck of purity from the complete Shikon Jewel into Kohaku, so that he may live.


Why is the Jewel Voice Broadcast called that? - History

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That Weirdo Announcer-Voice Accent: Where It Came From and Why It Went Away

Is your language rhotic? How to find out, and whether you should care.

Thanks for the scores of replies that have arrived in the past day, in response to my post asking why the stentorian, phony-British Announcer Voice that dominated newsreel narration, stage and movie acting, and public discourse in the United States during the first half of the 20 th century had completely disappeared.

The responses fall into interesting categories: linguistic descriptions of this accent sociological and ethnic explanations for its rise and fall possible technological factors in its prominence and disappearance explanations rooted in the movie industry nominees for who might have been the last American to talk this way and suggestions that a few rare specimens still exist.

Here’s a sampling for today, with more planned in the days ahead. I’ll try to give a representative range, and I am grateful for the care and thought that have gone into these responses.

1) The linguists have a name for it: they call it “Mid-Atlantic English.” I don’t like this name, for reasons I’ll explain in a minute. (And, OK, I’m not a linguist, but I’m married to one!) But it’s clear that the diction I call Announcer Voice has been the object of close linguistic study. I received many notes like this one:

The variety of English you are referring to has a name in linguistics: "Mid-Atlantic English".

The Wikipedia entry for it is quite detailed. I'm not an expert, but Bill Labov from UPenn is, and he is quoted thusly:

“According to William Labov, teaching of this pronunciation declined sharply after the end of World War II. As a result, this American version of a ‘posh’ accent has all but disappeared even among the American upper classes. The clipped English of George Plimpton and William F. Buckley, Jr. were vestigial examples.”

Buckley clearly flaunts it, probably to set himself apart from the hoi polloi of his contemporaries.

The Wikipedia entry is indeed delightful. For instance:

Mid-Atlantic English was the dominant dialect among the Northeastern American upper class through the first half of the 20th century. As such, it was popular in the theatre and other forms of elite culture in that region….

With the evolution of talkies in the late 1920s, voice was first heard in motion pictures. It was then that the majority of audiences first heard Hollywood actors speaking predominantly in Mid-Atlantic English…

British expatriates John Houseman, Henry Daniell, Anthony Hopkins, Camilla Luddington, and Angela Cartwright exemplified the accent, as did [a long list of North Americans, from Elizabeth Taylor and Grace Kelly to Richard Chamberlain and Christopher Plummer]. Orson Welles notably spoke in a mid-Atlantic accent in the 1941 film Citizen Kane, as did many of his co-stars, such as Joseph Cotten. …

Others outside the entertainment industry known for speaking Mid-Atlantic English include William F. Buckley, Jr., Gore Vidal, George Plimpton, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Norman Mailer, Diana Vreeland, Maria Callas, Cornelius Vanderbilt IV.

With such a useful explanation, why do I gripe about the name? To me, “Mid-Atlantic English” is the nom juste for a related but distinct phenomenon (which is also mentioned in Wikipedia). That is the tendency of Americans trying to sound more British, or Brits trying to sound more Yank, to split the difference and speak in an accent whose home ground is no real country but somewhere in the middle of the sea.

Several readers wrote in with specimens of Americans who had gone to England and ended up speaking in this mid-Atlantic way. For instance:

The American-British television presenter Loyd Grossman, who has described his accent as Mid-Atlantic. This speech pattern might be common among US expatriates in the UK, of which Grossman would seem to represent just the most ostentatious example.

If you listen to Grossman (who is originally from Boston) starting about 15 seconds into the clip below, you’ll see that he uses a split-the-difference UK/US hybrid that is literally “mid-Atlantic,” in the sense of combining accents from both countries, but is different from the newsreel announcer voice:

One more note from the academy:

You should talk to William Labov [JF: I will try] , pioneering sociolinguist, whose landmark study into New York City speech led him to ask the same question you have.

NYC speech in the sixties, in some ways, flipped prestige markers. Labov suspected that WWII had something to do about it. I feel that his work on this and many other language-related matters should be far more widely known than it is.

The “flipped prestige markers” point here is fascinating. From looking at Labov’s study, I know today, as I didn’t know yesterday, that linguists use the term rhotic to describe whether a person pronounces, or doesn’t, the “R” sound before a consonant or at the end of a word. If you say, I pahked my cah in Hahvahd Yahd, like some vaudeville version of a Boston accent, you are non-rhotic. If you say, I parked my car in Harvard Yard, you are being rhotic. Now you know!

The point of the flipped prestige markers is that generally the fewer the Rs, the fancier the person. Queen Elizabeth doesn’t say car, and neither did Franklin D. Roosevelt, nor did the newsreel announcers or movie actors of his day. But Labov said that in post-World War II New York, fancier people started becoming rhotic, and recovering their Rs. This brings us back to the “why things changed” question.

2) The Role of Broadway and Hollywood, and the Shift from Jimmy Cagney to Marlon Brando. A reader writes:

I’ve wondered about this myself when I see old Jimmy Cagney movies—and the date of his last starring role might give us a hint towards the date range of the change: "One, Two, Three" in 1961. (What else happened that year. See below!) I’d like to offer a speculation, for what it’s worth.

My suspicion is that the shift might have begun in the switch away from the two paired styles in American movies, the classical acting of the British School and the rapid patter of popular American actors (Marx Brothers, Cagney, Powell and Loy, etc), and over to the Method Acting style of the Strasberg/Brando/Dean school. (Newsreels ran in movie theaters, of course: what better critique of the high newsreel style than the new movies that jarred against it?)

The enormously popular speech styles of Brando and Dean (and I could add Elvis Presley) clearly pushed vernacular style into a kind of mainstream acceptability, then desirability. Just in time for the Sixties, with all their other pressures towards some kind of anti-Eisenhower authenticity. (Did Eisenhower speak the newsreel style? A little before my time, but Kennedy certainly didn’t, even if his vernacular was more formal than Brando’s. His high Boston accent might have been heard as an influential transitional hybrid, and it’s interesting how prominent parodies of the speech of Brando, Dean, and Kennedy were at the time: seems a sign that we were noticing a marked change.

So, pairing the Cagney hint with the Kennedy Inaugural, could we date the changeover to 1961? A heuristic approximation!

Of the Murrow Boys, Eric Sevareid held on to the newsreel style the longest relying on memory, I’m betting that we could actually watch the transition away from that to a more vernacular style in the long career of Walter Cronkite. He never went all the way, though his authenticity and newly-downstyle speaking could probably be marked in the crisis/triumph stages of his reporting: the death of JFK the Vietnam report the moon landing. Interesting that the two competitors for his anchor chair were both fully vernacular speakers from the South and West: Mudd and Rather. Dan Rather certainly marks the definitive end of the newsreel style and the ascendance of the folksy vernacular: those rustic analogies!

Another entertainment-related explanation for the shift, right about the time of the Eisenhower-Kennedy transition:

The plumby announcer voice that hovers over the Atlantic midway between the Eastern Seaboard and England was mortally wounded in 1959. That was when Westbrook van Voorhis , the famous “March of Time” voice, did the intro narration of the pilot episode of The Twilight Zone . After running the pilot, Rod Serling realized the narration needed a less pompous sounding and more natural voice – himself. The fake English announcer voice lingered on sporadically until the end of the Johnson administration in newsreels, which themselves ceased production around the same time, but Rod Serling’s decision sounded the death knell for that accent.

And similarly on the role of ridicule in speeding the move away from this accent:

This is only partly facetious, but I think I know who was the American to speak "Announcer." And the answer may explain partly why it has gone out of fashion: Jonathan Harris, the actor who played Dr. Smith on the television show "Lost in Space."

I think that perhaps Harris' portrayal of Dr. Smith made the accent so identified with cowardly buffoonery that no one in the baby boom generation and later would want to use the accent as anything other than a joke.

The funny thing about Harris was that he did not start out with that accent - as I suspect George Gershwin did not. Harris trained himself as a young man to lose his native Bronx accent - to the point that he was asked if he were British. His response was "no, just affected."

And the role of Katharine Hepburn, whose “Locust Valley Lockjaw” accent was a cousin of announcer-speak:

I was just discussing this not a week ago with a friend who has done voice work in film and television, and can adopt this accent in an instant to evoke that period, much to my amusement. But he has never employed that voice professionally, and certainly does not speak that way in “real life”.

As an old film buff, I am used to this voice, though it figures unevenly in old movies. Katharine Hepburn spoke this way, on and off screen until she died. Jean Harlow, one of my favorites, is all over the map with this, sometimes sounding like a tough streetwalker, other times like a society matron, and, oddly, slipping in and out of both dialects in the same role, or even in one sentence. Even the manliest actors, such as Humphrey Bogart and Clark Gable sometimes slipped into this voice-coach mode.

One thinks of the glorious character actress, Kathleen Freeman, as the voice coach Phoebe Dinsmore in “Singing in the Rain”: “Round tones, Miss Lamont.” In Woody Allen’s “Radio Days”, Mia Farrow has an impossibly thick Brooklyn accent until she takes voice lessons and becomes a successful radio purveyor of celebrity gossip. After her transformation, I noted that Mia sounds precisely like her mother, Maureen O’Sullivan, who had that patrician manner of speaking on and off screen. Mia had the perfect model!

Off screen, George Plimpton and Gore Vidal come to mind. They spoke in this manner, and it seemed perfectly natural, evocative of a background spent among the gentry of the northeast. Prestigious prep schools and ivy league institutions (though Gore Vidal never went to college). Was this sheer affectation? I hope not. I thoroughly enjoyed listening to these men speak. Orson Welles also comes to mind, though I noticed he spoke in this mode more often during his early days, on and off screen.

We’ll have a lot more to say about Buckley and Vidal — for now the leaders in the race for Last American to Talk This Way (with George Plimpton in third)—in the next installment. But for now, just one more category:

3) Changing technology, changing voices. One reader writes:

I've wondered whether that "announcer English" was at least partly caused by poor loudspeakers and microphones. If you were making a speech in a large hall, or speaking on the radio, you needed to enunciate very clearly and use a lot of emphases to be sure your audience could understand what you were saying. After the technology improved the need to speak so histrionically went away, and so did "announcer English."

And another, in more detail:

The primary reason [for the accent] was primitive microphone technology: "natural" voices simply did not get picked up well by the microphones of the time, and people were instructed to and learned to speak in such a way that their words could be best transmitted through the microphone to the radio waves or to recording media.

Just listen to very early recordings from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, back even before microphones, when singers had to yell directly into a large cone and over-enunciate so that their voices would be recorded into something intelligible on a spinning wax cylinder or disk. The limited frequency response of the recording technology of the late 19th and early 20th centuries has left us with only a pale, and sometimes caricatural image of the original sound. Listen to Caruso singing or Bix Beiderbecke playing his cornet to hear how muffled was the recording of those sounds.

Microphone technology improved enormously in the 40s, but a pattern, a style of speech in the news and entertainment industries had been set: radio announcers and broadcasters could, from the late 1940s onwards, speak more naturally, but those who wanted to "sound like a real newsman" had to affect the old way of speaking, probably as a way of establishing their bona fides.

I remember the Lowell Thomas documentary films of the 50s where Mr. Thomas' mellifluous tones and distinct radio-style pronunciation gave him a respectability that a similar huckster could hardly hope to replicate today by the mere application of such an artifice. (This is not to belittle Lowell Thomas, but to recognize the artifice that served him so well in his career).

A similar phenomenon can be noted in the use, well into the 1980s, of the recorded sound of teletype machines in the background of newscasts, a sound still faintly evoked by the bip-bip-bip patterns of music that often introduces news broadcasts, even though teletype machines are long gone… The subconscious association of this pattern of sound with news is fading fast with the passing of the years and will undoubtedly disappear entirely in the coming decade as surely as the over-enunciated style of radio speech of the 30s disappeared within a generation of its no longer being needed.

Since all we have are recordings of those long-vanished voices, we do not and cannot know whether people spoke "this way" when they were not being recorded, although I would be willing to wager that they did not. Except at parties.

And bolstering this last point, a reader who grew up in Depression-era Chicago writes:


All I can think of is that people were imitating FDR. I think it was an affectation people adopted because they thought it made them sound much more intelligent! But the average person never talked that way. We all just had our own regional accent—or non accent, like the flat midwest speak.

The picture at the top of this post is of the same Westbrook Van Voorhis who epitomized FDR-era announcer-speak but didn’t fit the sensibility of the early-cool-cat-era Twilight Zone. It’s a shot from a YouTube video that itself is a fascinating time-capsule portrait of language change. The presentation was called Freedom of the American Road and was made 60 years ago, in 1955, as part of the campaign to build support for the new Interstate Highway system.

In it Van Voorhis has the formal delivery that would have seemed familiar to many mid-century listeners but which in retrospect we know was on the way out. The first minute is a cameo by Henry Ford II, who speaks in an utterly flat Midwest rather than Mid-Atlantic accent that no one would call elegant but that would sound perfectly natural in 2015.

Next up: some sociological explanations of why someone like George Gershwin might have tried to speak like Westbrook Van Voorhis. And the many candidates for the crown of Last American to Speak This Way.

Update: This post is #2 in the announcer-speak series. #1 was “Who Was the Last American to Speak This Way,” #3 is “Class-War Edition”, and #4 is “The Origin Story.”


Watch the video: 玉音放送君が代高音質. Kimigayo played in the radio broadcast informing Japans defeat (August 2022).