The story

History of Pueblo I - History

History of Pueblo I - History

We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Pueblo I



The first Pueblo, built as Colorado (armored cruiser 7) (q.v.), served under the latter name until renamed Pueblo 9 November 1916.


(PF-13: dp. 2,415,1. 303'11"; b. 37'6", dr. 13'8", s. 20 k., epl
190; a. 2 3", 4 40mm.; cl. Tacoma; T. S2-S2-AQ1)

The second Pueblo (PF-13) was laid down under Maritime Commission eontraet (MC hull 1431) by Kaiser Cargo Ine., Yard #4, Richmond, Calif., 14 November 1943, Iaucehed 20 January 1944, sponsored by Seaman Carol Barnhart, USN(W) and commissioned 27 May 1944, Comdr. Donald T. Adams, USCG, in command

Following shakedown off the southern California coast Pueblo fitted out with highly sensitive meteorological instruments, reported for duty as a weather tracking ship with the Western Sea Frontier, 26 October 1944. Assigned to the Northern California Sector, and based at San Francisco, she patrolled on ocean weather stations, reporting weather eonditions and acting as lifeguard ship beneath the transPacific air routes, until March 1946. Then ordered to the east coast, she departed California on the 13th and headed for Charleston and inactivation. Decommissioned 6 April 1946, she was sold to J. C. Berkwitz and Co., New York, 22 September 1947, and resold, a year later, to the government of the Dominican Republic. Originally renamed Presidente Peynado, she serves that country into 1970 as Cap. General Pedro Santana (453).

History of Pueblo I - History

Where History, Culture and the Arts Empower Discovery


The adobe structures are estimated to be over a thousand years old. When the Spanish came to Pueblo country, some assumed they had found their “Cities of Gold” because of the miccaceous mineral found in the clay used for mudding the buildings. Micca, for short, glitters in light therefore the assumption was made by the Spanish. The Adobe structures are mudded every year by owners of the homes or by a designated group of men. The majority of the homes are still owned and maintained by the family.

The homes are generally passed down from one generation to the next with, usually, the eldest son being the sole owner. These homes are still used for religious and cultural activities. The homes are the connection to our way of
life and to our ancestors.

The Return of Blue Lake

On December 15, 1970, former President Richard M. Nixon signed into affect Public Law 91-550, approved in a bipartisan manner by the United States Congress. In speaking of the Bill’s significance, President Nixon stated, “This is a bill that represents justice, because in 1906 an injustice was done in which land involved in this bill, 48,000 acres, was taken from the Indians involved, the Taos Pueblo Indians. The Congress of the United States now returns that land to whom it belongs … I can’t think of anything more appropriate or any action that could make me more proud as President of the United States.”

That signing restored Taos Pueblo lands and led to the unhindered continuation of the Pueblo’s millenniums-old traditional culture. It also set a precedent for self-determination for all American Indian people, tribes and nations. Taos Pueblo Governor James A. Lujan had declared, “We hope all our neighbors in the Taos Valley will plan to be with us as we celebrate this momentous event for the people of Taos Pueblo.” As Cacique Romero, the Pueblo’s religious leader in the late 1960s and 1970s, who was instrumental in testifying on behalf of the Pueblo before Congress, stated in his response to Congress’ approval and President Nixon’s signing, “Anew day begins not only for the American Indian, but for all Americans in this Country. ” That new day led to Taos Pueblo safeguarding the interest and welfare of the Pueblo and its water supply, natural and domestic resources, and the locale of social and cultural events.

The Real History of Pueblo, Colorado

When I visited a few months ago, I had the opportunity to explore the Pueblo Riverwalk and learn a little bit about the history of Pueblo while riding in one of the Riverwalk boats. During our short ride, the guide regaled us with stories about Veteran’s Bridge, and Zebulon Pike’s expedition to Colorado. Although most of what I learned that day was new information, I knew that much of the city’s history had been glossed over. Since Center for Health Progress began organizing in Pueblo in 2017, I’ve learned about another side of the history of Pueblo. The history that I’ve come to know consists of ethnic and cultural diversity, labor strikes, and Chicano activism.

For the majority of its existence, industry in Pueblo revolved around the Colorado Fuel and Iron (CF&I) Steel Mill. For nearly a century, the CF&I Mill was the largest employer in the state of Colorado, and in the early 20 th century, it attracted a large number of immigrant laborers. Because Pueblo was one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse cities in Colorado and in the West, it became known as the “Melting Pot of the West.” At one point, more than 40 languages were spoken in the steel mill, and more than two dozen foreign language newspapers were published.

In addition to its long history of labor organizing, Pueblo was a focal point of El Movimiento of Colorado in the 1970s. El Movimiento, or The Movement, was led by Chicano activists who fought for civil rights, representation, and political power though education, culture, and the arts. Activists formed a local newspaper called La Cucaracha, which served to educate Chicanos about topics of the times. Vicente Martinez Ortega is our Pueblo community organizer, and his parents were heavily involved in this work, running La Clinica del Calle, a chain of nonprofit medical clinics that provided health care to people with low incomes and migrant workers in Eastern Colorado. Much more of the history of El Movimiento has been captured in an exhibit at Pueblo Community College.

Today, in our movement for health equity, we are using many of the same community organizing tactics as the folks who came before us. We are also working toward many of the same goals—access to health care, good jobs, representation for people of color and immigrants, and for systems of power to be held accountable to the people. It’s an honor to follow in the footsteps of the activists and leaders who blazed the trail and to continue the legacy of community organizing in Pueblo. One day, we hope to add our contribution to the history of Pueblo: a history of adversity, triumph, and resilience that shouldn’t be glossed over when its told.

Who we are and what we stand for

Pueblo is the brainchild of founder and child of the desert Michael Lanier. Michael grew up in the heart of the great Sonoran Desert- spending his youth in remote areas exploring and studying the unique life that exists there.

After attending college for horticulture and sociology, Michael moved to downtown Phoenix and worked at a few local shops and cafes, where he longed to see Phoenix grow into the dense cities he loved tp visit. With that goal in mind, Pueblo was born.

Pueblo’s first iteration began early 2015. What started first as a small market booth downtown, quickly expanded to two retail shops in Phoenix. Those shops combined into a much larger space in 2018 - the same year ASU Alum and Landscape Designer Coby Bruckner became a partner and founded our Landscape division: Pueblo Landforms.

As of late 2020 Pueblo employs over 10 humans and recently expanded west, becoming coastal with our location in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Venice Beach. We are currently in the process of expanding our Phoenix location to the historic Grand Avenue commercial district.

2020 above all other years has been one to set the tone up front for who we are as a business. Pueblo is queer-owned and inclusive. We serve thousands of people a month and we respect each and every one. We’ve always been community-focused, with a diverse staff representing that.

On Sustainability:

Pueblo as a company has always been focused on the world we live in. We have always occupied historic buildings reducing our environmental footprint a drastic amount. Our coastal location uses minimal power, while our Phoenix shop was reimagined in late 2020 with minimal power and water use at the forefront of it’s design.

Our inventory is generally low-impact, but we source plants from reputable growers where poaching is not permitted. We source most of our inventory regionally or within the US and work with all our suppliers and makers to ensure fair labor practices are followed.

The Pueblo in History: Oral History

Deloria Dallas in her native costume. Photograph courtesy of Deloria Dallas.

Deloria Dallas is a member of the Hopi tribe located in northeastern Arizona. She is maaswunga, a Hopi name for the fire and ghost clan, and her father is honanwungwu, or badger clan. She is the youngest of six children. She is a mother and her husband is from the bear clan.

Deloria graduated from Northern Arizona University with a Bachelor of Science degree in Applied Indigenous Studies with an emphasis in Cultural Resource Management. Also, she teaches U.S. Government and World History to high school students.

Her family lives with her parents in Lower Moencopi Village. On the Hopi reservation people live in villages on top of first, second, or third Mesas. Lower Moencopi Village is located on third mesa. Originally, her family came from a village called Old Oraibi, which is also a village on third mesa.

The Pueblo in History: Oral History
by Ms. Deloria Dallas

Archaeologists can add to their knowledge of Pueblos by talking to the descendants of the Ancestral Puebloan people. Ms. Deloria Dallas wrote the account below. This information was handed down to her from the oral history of her people.

As the Hopi began to settle in northeastern Arizona, they settled upon a life of farming. Hopi agriculture is based around what is known as the “three sisters,” which are corn, beans, and squash. The Hopi planted in fields below the mesas where they lived and relied only on the moisture of rain to water their crops.

Different kinds of corn would be planted in the spring and summer to ensure a good harvest. For Hopi, corn is life. Corn was not only the main food in the Hopi diet, but an important part of their ceremonial life. Many ceremonial events are linked to the planting, growing, and harvesting of corn.

Every Hopi village had their own natural spring. Water is just as important as corn to sustain the Hopi and their way of life. Hopi children are taught to respect water and always give thanks to it because it allows us to continue to live on earth day after day.

Hopi people live a life that is community oriented. When a Hopi child is born, he or she becomes part of her mother’s clan. Clans each have a responsibility to conduct specific ceremonies throughout the year. Homes of clan members are positioned within the community to reflect their position in the ceremonial calendar.

In a Hopi community many homes share common walls. They are set up in a rectangular block of rooms (or “roomblocks”) and usually have distinct gathering areas called “plazas.” These roomblocks are made of stone and adobe. Adobe is a mixture of mud and water. The stones are usually sandstone quarried from nearby. The adobe holds the stones together and helps to create a natural insulation for the home. The roof is made with large beams and insulated with various local vegetation. Finally, a layer of adobe is put on top of the roof so it can be used as an outdoor work area.

Orabi Pueblo. Photo courtesy of National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution NAA INV 6317300

The Hopi often built multi-storied roomblocks. Some roomblocks are as high as three stories with each level serving a specific purpose. The first level would serve as a living area, and the second level would serve as a storage area. If a home had a third level, it would serve as either another living or storage area.

The Hopi built their villages to represent corn. Multi-storied houses were connected by common walls, representing the kernels of corn on a cob, with no one piece missing. Homes always face the east. The first energy of life is felt in this direction and allows Hopis to give their respect to their father, the sun.

Acoma Pueblo. Photo courtesy of National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution NAA INV 06353700

A typical household would consist of an extended family. Inside the living area of the home, there is usually a hearth (fire pit) in the corner that served as a place to cook. Hopi homes did not have walls dividing rooms, so the ground floor living area was used as a common room. Often times, grinding bins with manos and metates would be placed against the wall of the main living room. A loom might also be placed in the room for men to weave on. Other chores would also take place in the “common room” such as cooking and pottery making. Old pieces of broken pottery would be stacked upon one another to create a chimney for the hearth.

Each year a Hopi home is given prayer feathers. These feathers protect the home from any sort of harm. Usually a home has a special place for these feathers, such as the beam of the roof. Over time these prayer feathers build up, but are never thrown away.

Over time, if a home begins to deteriorate, the women will reapply adobe on the outside of the house. They will also whitewash and plaster the inside of the rooms. Hopi homes are never abandoned, but passed down to female family members from generation to generation.

Illustration of a Pueblo II kiva.

Another very important place within every Hopi village is the kiva. A kiva is “an underground ceremonial chamber,” sort of like a sanctuary. Kivas are used almost year round, except during the month when the kiva, like all Hopi people, is expected to rest. Long ago, Hopi ancestors probably had a kiva for every family or clan. Today, the kiva is a shared property and does not belong to one particular family or clan. Hopi villages now have at least two kivas, and as many as six.

History and Culture

Stone-built fortresses, often located miles apart from one another, were upwards of four stories high and contained as many as 3,000 rooms.

The Pueblo of Jemez (pronounced “Hay-mess” or traditionally as “He-mish”) is one of the 19 pueblos located in New Mexico. It is a federally recognized American Indian tribe with 3,400 tribal members, most of whom reside in a puebloan village that is known as “‘Walatowa” (a Towa word meaning “this is the place”). Walatowa is located in North-Central New Mexico, within the southern end of the majestic Canon de Don Diego. It is located on State Road 4 approximately one hour northwest of Albuquerque (55 miles) and approximately one hour and twenty minutes southwest of Santa Fe.

The Pueblo of Jemez is an independent sovereign nation with an independent government and tribal court system. The secular Tribal Government includes the Tribal Council, the Jemez Governor, two Lt. Governors, two fiscales, and a sheriff. The 2nd Lt. Governor is also the governor of the Pueblo of Pecos. Traditional matters are still handled through a separate governing body that is rooted in prehistory. This traditional government includes the spiritual and society leaders, a War Captain and Lt. War Captain.

The Jemez people originated from a place called “Hua-na-tota.” The ancestors of the Jemez Nation, migrated to the “Canon de San Diego Region” from the four-corners area in the late 13th century. By the time of European contact in the year 1541, the Jemez Nation was one of the largest and most powerful of the puebloan cultures, occupying numerous puebloan villages that were strategically located on the high mountain mesas and the canyons that surround the present pueblo of Walatowa. These stone-built fortresses, often located miles apart from one another, were upwards of four stories high and contained as many as 3,000 rooms. They now constitute some of the largest archaeological ruins in the United States. Situated between these “giant pueblos” were literally hundreds of smaller one and two room houses that were used by the Jemez people during spring and summer months as basecamps for hunting, gathering, and agricultural activities.

The Jemez people experienced their first contact with Europeans in the form of Spanish conquistadors during the Coronado Expedition in the year of 1541. The Rodriquez-Chamuscado Expedition entered the area in 1581, followed by the Espejo Expedition in 1583. In the year 1598, a detachment of the first colonized expedition under the direction of Don Juan de Onate visited the Jemez. A Franciscan priest by the title of Alonzo de Lugo was assigned to the Jemez People, under his direction the area’s first church was built at the Jemez Pueblo of Guisewa (now Jemez State Monument on State Highway 4 in Jemez Springs). The Jemez nation contained an estimated 30,000 tribal members around the time of the Spanish contact. During the next 80 years, numerous revolts and uprisings occurred between the Jemez people and Spanish, primarily due to Spanish attempts to Christianize by force, and congregate them into just one or two villages, where the Franciscan missions were located. As a result, numerous people were killed on both sides, including many of the Franciscan priests. By the year 1680, the hostilities resulted in the Great Pueblo Revolt, during which the Spanish were expelled from the New Mexico Province through the strategic and collaborative efforts of all the Puebloan Nations. This was the first and only successful revolt in the United States in which a suppressive nation was expelled. By 1688, the Spanish had begun their reconquest in force under General Pedro Reneros de Posada, acting Governor of New Mexico. The Pueblos of Santa Ana and Zia were conquered, and by 1692, Santa Fe was again in Spanish hands under Governor Diego de Vargas. Four more years would pass before the Jemez Nation was completely subdued and placed under clergy and military rule. Jemez ancestors were moved and concentrated into the single Village of Walatowa where they presently reside today.

In the year 1838, Jemez culture became diversified when the Towa speaking people from the Pueblo of Pecos (located east of Santa Fe) resettled at the Pueblo of Jemez in order to escape the increasing depredations of the Spanish and Comanche cultures. Readily welcomed by the Jemez people, the Pecos culture was rapidly integrated into Jemez Society, and in 1936, both cultural groups were legally merged into one by an Act of Congress. Today, the Pecos culture still survives at Jemez. Its traditions have been preserved, and as previously noted, the Pueblo of Jemez honorably recognizes a Governor of Pecos.

© 1993 William Whatley with edition from Pueblo of Jemez Administration

The History of the Pueblo Chile

Hundreds and thousands of people pack the streets of downtown Pueblo. Colorful tents and booths line the sidewalk, selling everything from jackets and trinkets to pizza and popcorn. Food trucks sell meals to hungry pedestrians, and sometimes struggle to keep up with lines that stretch down the block.

The smell of roasting food permeates the air as smoke spirals high into the clear late-summer sky. Meat of all kind, of course- hot dogs and briskets and ribs and burgers- but what really dominates the scene is something that is wholly and uniquely Pueblo. Iron cages spin over open flames, and inside thousands upon thousands of pounds of fresh, green Pueblo chiles are roasting.

The Pueblo Chile Fest is an icon of southern Colorado, and one of the most important events in every Puebloan’s calendar. Each year it gets bigger and bigger as more and more people flock to the town from as far afield as New Mexico and even California to buy bushels of Pueblo’s famous chiles.

It’s easy to see why the chiles are so popular. They’re not just some of the highest quality peppers on the market, roasted to perfection. They’re also extremely versatile, and can be mixed in with almost every dish. Tacos, quesadillas, and enchiladas, of course- but also sloppy joes, burgers, macaroni and cheese, spaghetti, sausages, scrambled eggs, and sandwiches of all kind. You can even just chop them up and slather them over your bread of choice- no additional ingredients required.

Pueblo has long been a hot spot for chile growers. The climate is almost perfect for them. The long, warm summers and low rainfall are ideal for growing peppers of all kind, and farmers have been doing just that since at least the late 1800s but most likely much earlier than that. Nobody knows when the first chiles were grown in the Arkansas River valley, but they may have been brought north by Mexican traders and settlers as early as the 1840s, when the region was first being settled by colonists of European descent.

After generations and generations of cultivation in the Pueblo area, a uniquely local variety began to develop, most likely through a combination of natural selection and basic horticulture by the farmers. This was the birth of the very first Pueblo green chiles.

The most common and popular strain is a more recent development. The majority of the peppers you see in Puebloan cuisine are Mosco chiles, a specific variety that has been on the market for just over two decades.

The Mosco chile was a labor of love by Dr. Mike Bartolo and his team at the Arkansas Valley Research Center. Dr. Bartolo is a vegetable crop specialist with Colorado State University, and his family has been in the Pueblo area for generations. His uncle Harry Mosco (for whom the chile is named) was a farmer who like most in the area grew, among other things, Pueblo green chiles. When he passed away in 1988, he left his family the seed stock.

Dr. Bartolo began growing a new crop of chile from this stock, and quickly noticed one very unique plant. “It was a little bit bigger and a little bit different from the rest of them,” he said. “I began making selections out of that original plant, and after several years of selection we developed what became known as the Mosco.”

The Mosco chile is unique for several reasons. It tends to grow larger that other strains of the same type, and has a significantly thicker outer wall. This makes it ideal for roasting, which is the traditional way that Pueblo chiles are prepared. A thick wall allows the chile to be cooked to perfection without risking the fruit splitting open, or the juices seeping out and evaporating in the heat. Because of this, it maintains the rich flavor of the chile- so it’s little wonder that the Mosco chile has become so popular.

It also grows extremely well in the local Pueblo environment. Dr. Bartolo explained that this was part of the purpose of the project.

“It was a matter of selective breeding,” explained Dr. Bartolo. “We grew it in the Arkansas Valley, so we selected it under natural conditions for this particular environment. You also look for size, you look for a heavier pod. A thin-walled chile won’t hold up to roasting [so] we were always looking for a thick-walled chile that has some body, some substance to it.”

This thick outer skin makes the Mosco perfect for roasting, which in turn makes it perfect for the Pueblo Chile Fest. The two of them- the chile and the festival- have become cultural landmarks not just for Pueblo but for Southern Colorado as a whole.

“It’s one of those crops that became incorporated into the cultures of a lot of people,” said Dr. Bartolo. “It’s interesting that chile is kind of a metaphor for Pueblo itself. It was an immigrant to Pueblo county from Mexico, or somewhere else, and it became ingrained in the culture. Like the people of Pueblo county, who came from all over but fused their cultures together. Even though you don’t think of [chile peppers] as part of Italian diet or culture, it soon became incorporated. I remember eating spaghetti with green chile and roasted red chile. All this fusion of different cultures has become our own identity.”

The Pueblo Chile Fest is held every year in mid-September in downtown Pueblo, Colorado.

Bessemer Historic Study

Conducted by Historitecture LLC, the Bessemer study is the last in the city's Neighborhood Heritage Enhancement program which conducted 4 neighborhood context studies and one citywide Modernism study covering most of the city's built environment from 1870 to 1982. The Bessemer study delves into traditional architectural history and includes a style guide to help residents identify architectural styles from small Minnequa Town Company housing and ethnic churches, to "alley houses" and the ever-present 'house-with-commercial-(generally a bar)- attached'.

In addition to the style guide, the preservation plan will help residents and policy makers utilize the information for future preservation and general planning efforts. Beyond most traditional context studies, the Bessemer report outlines revitalization efforts that were early (1940's) and earnest and continue to this day in this neighborhood of 6,116 people (2010 Census). However the population decline has leveled off recently and organizations like the Bessemer Historical Society are using the areas rich industrial past to chart its future.

Furthermore some of the city's finest culinary destinations are located in Bessemer and it is home to friendly, neighborhood bars which function as gateways to the past. Citizens can download the study from the link below for free, or get hard bound copies from Bessemer Historical Society or Historic Pueblo Inc. for a fee. The city can always make arrangement to provide digital copies to anyone for free as well. We hope the document is useful for lifetime residents of Bessemer and newcomers alike.


“I am waving a ripe sunflower, I am scattering sunflower pollen to the four world-quarters.

I am joyful because of my melons, I am joyful because of my beans, I am joyful because of my squashes.

The sunflower waves. So did the corn wave When the wind blew against it, So did my white corn bend

When the red lightning descended upon it, It trembled as the sunflower When the rain beat down its leaves…” Poem: Women’s Harvest Song from Songs of The Pueblo Indians by Amy Lowell

The Pueblo people are Native American Indians living in the Southwestern United States. Pueblo people rooted in this region of the southwest are descendants of an indigenous Native American culture that has established itself over many centuries.

Pueblo Indians Part I provides brief history of the Anazasi and shows how the Pueblo Tribes of today originated from them. Part II provides information for each individual Pueblo as it stands today.

The Pueblo Indians, whose name is Spanish for “stone masonry village dweller”, are one of the oldest cultures in the U.S. Their ancestors, the Anasazi (Navajo for “ancient ones”) have a history that has be traced back 7000 years, well into prehistory. The most important development in the evolution of the Anasazi culture was the changeover of the tribe from a nomadic to sedentary lifestyle, and their settling in Southeastern Colorado, New-Mexico, Utah and Arizona, also known as the Four Corners region. This is when they began constructing impressive dwellings, making pottery and other artifacts, and weaving baskets this is also when the Anasazi first began developing their agricultural skills, raising turkeys, and growing maize and other crops, like the South AmericanMaya and Aztec before them.

Although theirs seemed to be a most efficiently run society, the 14th century saw the rapid decline of the Anasazi empire. The real cause for the decline of this enigmatic and impressive civilization is still the subject of debate amongst archaeologists and anthropologists, who have brought forth a multitude of theories ranging from warfare with other tribes, to a mass exodus brought on by a new religion Kachina, which was being practiced in the south. Perhaps the most widely accepted theory is that of a great drought, which brought on famine, a theory which would be consistent with archaeological findings of skeletons showing signs of malnutrition, and the abundance of infant and children’s bones. Bear in mind that most of the theories on offer are based on analysis of Anasazi pottery and other archaeological finds, so most are based on speculation.

The theory that enemy tribes had been taking over Anasazi territory is also interesting, but makes little sense since any culture wishing to inhabit the region would have had to have developed considerable agricultural skills, to be able to farm the arid land, and most conquering tribes were better skilled as hunters than farmers. Still, careful study of the Pueblos shows that the settlements were built with a certain degree of concern for the safety of their inhabitants, and that the Anasazi were prepared to deal with invaders. Besides, if another tribe had taken over the settlement, wouldn’t there be evidence of their occupancy? All in all, it’s really difficult to tell what exactly happened to the Anasazi, and why they left the homes which they had so painstakingly built.

Pueblo Indian culture will one day result in solving this ancient enigma.

During their mass exodus, the Anasazi relocated to their present-day settlements further down south, joining other tribes of Ancestral Puebloans. There, multi-cultural influences had their effect on social interaction, government, religion, and most importantly, language. The tribe developed their language out of four major influences, Uto-Aztecan, Eastern and Western Keresan, Aztec-Tanoan, and Zuni, which also served as a basis for the many other sub-dialects invented during the course of Pueblo Indian cultural evolution.

The four tribes of Eastern Pueblo Indians are the Keres, the Tewa, Tiwa, and Towa, while the Western Pueblos are represented by two tribes, the Hopi,and the Zuni the Hopi are believed to be the direct descendent of the Anasazi, but are not considered Pueblo Indians, but rather and offshoot of the tribe.

Pueblo Indians of the late 15th century did not inhabit villages built upon naturally formed caves, but houses made of adobe bricks and plaster. The Pueblos were built close to one another in similar fashion to, but more spaced apart than those of their ancestors, but since they weren’t protected by canyon walls, they were less structurally safe from the elements and possible assailants.

The Pueblo Indians were also farmers, as the Anasazi had been before them, growing pumpkins, squash, melons, and corn. They formed peaceful communities, and were welcoming of the Spanish settlers who had just arrived in Rio Grande area. The Spanish contributed to the Pueblo Indian way of life by introducing horses and livestock, and crafts such as metallurgy, while the Pueblo Indians influenced the way the Spanish built their homes. But this peaceful coexistence wasn’t without its ups and downs, as the problems of their ancestors began to plague the Pueblos.

Once again, the Pueblo Indians fell prey to the arid climate and droughts which had driven their ancestors out of the Four Corners region. This created conflicts between the Native Americans and the Spanish, which led to hostilities between the two groups. Unfortunately, the Pueblo were outnumbered, and the Spaniards were better equipped with weapons, which resulted in the massacre of many Pueblo Indians, and the subjugation of the tribe.

A few years later, the Pueblos staged another revolt, but once again had to submit to their oppressors. Two more uprisings against the Spanish followed, and even though some of the Indians had abandoned their villages and relocated into safer areas and built better fortifications around their homes, all ended in defeat for the Pueblos. By then, missionaries had converted over fifty thousand of the Native Americans to Christianity, and nearly one hundred villages had Chapels. The Hopi, and other Western peoples managed to remain independent of Spanish rule.

One interesting fact to point out is the adaptation of Pueblo architecture into the design of the Chapels and Churches even though Christianity had been adopted by a large majority of the tribe, the churches they built retained certain elements that had been present in their traditional kivas. One good example of this can be seen at the Isleta Pueblo’s St-Augustine Church, one of the oldest mission churches in existence today.

The Pueblo Indians of today have been very much assimilated into American Culture. However, they still live as they did before, their economy being dependent on trade and agriculture. Pueblo blankets and baskets are very popular with tourists visiting the New Mexico area. However, socio-cultural factors such as poor education and unemployment are taking their toll, and with each new generation, Pueblo Indian tradition is eroding.

Joseph Suina, former Governor of Cohiti Pueblo said in 1998:

“Right now, we are in a struggle to hang on to our sovereignty. Legislation being proposed in Congress would weaken the sovereignty of Indian tribes. We would like to remind the powers that be that we have been given that sovereignty—as symbolized by the canes presented to us by Spain, Mexico and the United States.”