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18 November 1941

18 November 1941


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18 November 1941

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North Africa

Start of Operation Crusader, British offensive in the desert

Japan

Diet passes hostility resolution against United States

Great Britain

Sir Alan Brooke is appointed Chief of the Imperial General Staff



Operation Flipper

Operation Flipper (also called the Rommel Raid) was a British commando raid during the Second World War, mainly by men from No. 11 (Scottish) Commando. The operation included an attack on the headquarters of Erwin Rommel, the commander of Panzergruppe Afrika in North Africa. It was timed for the night of 17/18 November 1941, just before the start of Operation Crusader. The operation failed as Rommel had left the target house weeks earlier and all but two of the commandos who landed were killed or captured. One member of the Special Boat Section team, who had secured the beach for the commando party, also escaped.


Joseph Goebbels publishes his screed of hate

On November 16, 1941, Joseph Goebbels publishes in the German magazine Das Reich that “The Jews wanted the war, and now they have it”—referring to the Nazi propaganda scheme to shift the blame for the world war onto European Jews, thereby giving the Nazis a rationalization for the so-called Final Solution.

Just two days earlier, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, having read more than a dozen decoded messages from German police which betrayed the atrocities to which European Jews were being subjected, had written in a letter to the Jewish Chronicle that “The Jew bore the brunt of the Nazis’ first onslaught upon the citadels of freedom and human dignity… He has not allowed it to break his spirit: he has never lost the will to resist.” And active Jewish resistance was increasing, especially in the USSR, where Jews were joining partisans in fighting the German incursions into Russian territory.

But it was proving too little too late, as Goebbels, Himmler, and the rest of Hitler’s henchmen carried out the 𠇎limination of the Jews,” using propaganda and anti-Bolshevik rhetoric to infuse SS soldiers with enthusiasm for their work. As Goebbels wrote in Das Reich: “[T]he prophecy which the Fuhrer made…that should international finance Jewry succeed in plunging the nations into a world war once again, the result would not be the Bolshevization of the world𠉫ut the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe. We are in the midst of that process𠉬ompassion or regret are entirely out of place here.”


Operation Crusader – Battle of Sidi Rezegh 18 November–7 December 1941

After General Wavell’s failures with Operation Brevity (May 1941) and Operation Battleaxe (June 1941), General Sir Claude Auchinleck, the new commander of Middle East Forces, was under pressure to launch a renewed attack on Axis forces. The Allies hoped to destroy Rommel’s powerful Panzergruppe Afrika and lift the siege on British and Commonwealth troops in Tobruk. Allied forces would advance through the southern desert, engage and destroy enemy tanks, then turn northwest to assist with a breakout at Tobruk. The capture of Sidi Rezegh was the key to the success of the operation. The fierce and bloody battle there came at a huge loss of life and capture for New Zealand troops, yet it exhausted Rommel’s armies, stretched Axis supply lines and facilitated the relief of Tobruk. It is generally considered that Rommel’s dash to the wire, the ensuing chaos and Auchinleck’s sheer determination, were paramount in this first defeat of Rommel in North Africa.


The Caldwell News and The Burleson County Ledger (Caldwell, Tex.), Vol. 56, No. 18, Ed. 1 Friday, November 7, 1941

Weekly newspaper from Caldwell, Texas that includes local, state and national news along with extensive advertising.

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six pages : ill. page 20 x 13 in. Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.

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This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Texas Digital Newspaper Program and was provided by the Harrie P. Woodson Memorial Library to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 155 times. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

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Harrie P. Woodson Memorial Library

The Harrie P. Woodson Memorial Library is a public library affiliated with the system that serves the North Texas city of Caldwell in Burleson County. In 2011, the library was awarded a Tocker Foundation grant to digitize Burleson County's historic newspapers and to provide access to them on the Portal to Texas History.


Wheels West Day in Susanville History – November 19th, 1941

Sheriff Olin Johnson said tonight that Clarence Alexander, 24, Cleo Springs Okla., had confessed “in detail” to the wrecking Aug. 12, 1939, of the streamline train “City of San Francisco” with the death of 24 persons. Several cars of the Southern Pacific Flyer were virtually demolished near Harney, Nev., when it struck a portion of track, which railroad and federal authorities said had been sabotaged. Sheriff Johnson said he had arrested Alexander for routine investigation last night and questioned him thoroughly when, “it became apparent he was withholding something.”

The sheriff said that Alexander’s story of the disastrous wreck “seemed to check with the facts except for one or two details being further investigated.” Alexander said to be a former section hand.

Southern Pacific officials were taking part in the questioning and in San Francisco railroad authorities said they were checking the story. It was pointed out there have been several “confessions” to the wreck, none of which were substantiated.

Johnson quoted Alexander as saying that while in Wells, NV. He had decided to wreck a train “to get some money.” Alexander, according to Johnson, traveled by freight until he “found a likely looking spot for a wreck.”

It was near Harney that Alexander, according to the sheriff, said he found small tool house, taking from it a claw bar, wrench and spike maul with which he loosened a rail and spiked it down again out of line with the track.

He said, according to the sheriff, that he lurked across the river until the streamliner piled up. Alexander was quoted as saying, “When I heard the moaning and screaming of passengers, I was scared and caught a train east. I have been in hiding since that time.”

Johnson said the tools Alexander claimed to have used were the same ones found in the river after the wreck.

“His story rings true,” Sheriff Johnson said, “but we want to check some more details before we take any actions. We are not of the opinion he is a crackpot.”

“We took him in custody after he wrecked his motorcycle. He had been drinking a little.”

Courtesy of the Nevada Historical Society

After approximately 18 hours of questioning, Johnson said that Alexander had clung religiously to his story. “There are some discrepancies,” said Johnson, “but the general factual background seems good.”

“It is still a convincing story,” the sheriff declared. He refused comment when asked if Alexander had told of any accomplices.

Johnson said Alexander was being questioned particularly on whether he was wearing leather jacket, since one was found near the scene of the wreck. The suspect recalled having a jacket at that time but was hazy as to what kind it was, Johnson said.

Since the accident, Alexander has been in Salt Lake City, then Oklahoma, and more recently working as a section hand for the Western Pacific.

Alexander told the sheriff his only motive was robbery, thinking he could wreck the train, then steal pocketbooks from the passengers. In the confusion. The Southern Pacific Railroad posted a $10,000 reward for the apprehension and conviction of the train wreckers.

Officers planned tonight to take Clarence Alexander, 24, to Harney, Nev., scene of the disastrous wreck August 12, 1930 of the streamline train “City of San Francisco” which he has admitted perpetuating. Sheriff Olin Johnson said that he and Dan O’Connell, chief special agent for the Southern Pacific Railroad, would leave here late tonight with Alexander to go over on the spot all points of his confession.


18 November 1941 - History

Vyacheslav Molotov (1889-1986) was Foreign Minister of Soviet Russia when the Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact was signed, August 23rd, 1939. News of the Pact stunned the world and effectively paved the way for the beginning of World War II with Hitler assured the Germans would not face Russian military opposition in response to Nazi aggression in Europe. Text of the Pact and Photo of Signing

Just two weeks after the Pact was signed, Hitler's armies invaded Poland. Then, in accordance with a secret protocol in the Pact, the Russians themselves invaded Poland from the east and the country was divided up between the Nazis and Soviets.

In 1940, Hitler's troops successfully invaded most of Western Europe, achieving a stunning victory over France.

However, Hitler believed that Nazi Germany's future depended entirely on acquiring vast expanses of fertile land in the east, namely Russia. He therefore turned his attention to Soviet Russia and launched a "war of annihilation" against the Russians beginning on June 22nd, 1941. Below is the initial Russian reaction, broadcast via radio to the people by Molotov himself.

Citizens of the Soviet Union:
The Soviet Government and its head, Comrade Stalin, have authorized me to make the following statement:

Today at 4 o'clock a.m., without any claims having been presented to the Soviet Union, without a declaration of war, German troops attacked our country, attacked our borders at many points and bombed from their airplanes our cities Zhitomir, Kiev, Sevastopol, Kaunas and some others, killing and wounding over two hundred persons.

There were also enemy air raids and artillery shelling from Rumanian and Finnish territory.

This unheard of attack upon our country is perfidy unparalleled in the history of civilized nations. The attack on our country was perpetrated despite the fact that a treaty of non-aggression had been signed between the U. S. S. R. and Germany and that the Soviet Government most faithfully abided by all provisions of this treaty.

The attack upon our country was perpetrated despite the fact that during the entire period of operation of this treaty, the German Government could not find grounds for a single complaint against the U.S.S.R. as regards observance of this treaty.

Entire responsibility for this predatory attack upon the Soviet Union falls fully and completely upon the German Fascist rulers.

At 5:30 a.m. -- that is, after the attack had already been perpetrated, Von der Schulenburg, the German Ambassador in Moscow, on behalf of his government made the statement to me as People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs to the effect that the German Government had decided to launch war against the U.S.S.R. in connection with the concentration of Red Army units near the eastern German frontier.

In reply to this I stated on behalf of the Soviet Government that, until the very last moment, the German Government had not presented any claims to the Soviet Government, that Germany attacked the U.S.S.R. despite the peaceable position of the Soviet Union, and that for this reason Fascist Germany is the aggressor.

On instruction of the government of the Soviet Union I also stated that at no point had our troops or our air force committed a violation of the frontier and therefore the statement made this morning by the Rumanian radio to the effect that Soviet aircraft allegedly had fired on Rumanian airdromes is a sheer lie and provocation.

Likewise a lie and provocation is the whole declaration made today by Hitler, who is trying belatedly to concoct accusations charging the Soviet Union with failure to observe the Soviet-German pact.

Now that the attack on the Soviet Union has already been committed, the Soviet Government has ordered our troops to repulse the predatory assault and to drive German troops from the territory of our country.

This war has been forced upon us, not by the German people, not by German workers, peasants and intellectuals, whose sufferings we well understand, but by the clique of bloodthirsty Fascist rulers of Germany who have enslaved Frenchmen, Czechs, Poles, Serbians, Norway, Belgium, Denmark, Holland, Greece and other nations.

The government of the Soviet Union expresses its unshakable confidence that our valiant army and navy and brave falcons of the Soviet Air Force will acquit themselves with honor in performing their duty to the fatherland and to the Soviet people, and will inflict a crushing blow upon the aggressor.

This is not the first time that our people have had to deal with an attack of an arrogant foe. At the time of Napoleon's invasion of Russia our people's reply was war for the fatherland, and Napoleon suffered defeat and met his doom.

It will be the same with Hitler, who in his arrogance has proclaimed a new crusade against our country. The Red Army and our whole people will again wage victorious war for the fatherland, for our country, for honor, for liberty.

The government of the Soviet Union expresses the firm conviction that the whole population of our country, all workers, peasants and intellectuals, men and women, will conscientiously perform their duties and do their work. Our entire people must now stand solid and united as never before.

Each one of us must demand of himself and of others discipline, organization and self-denial worthy of real Soviet patriots, in order to provide for all the needs of the Red Army, Navy and Air Force, to insure victory over the enemy.

The government calls upon you, citizens of the Soviet Union, to rally still more closely around our glorious Bolshevist party, around our Soviet Government, around our great leader and comrade, Stalin. Ours is a righteous cause. The enemy shall be defeated. Victory will be ours.

Vyacheslav Molotov - June 22, 1941

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18 November 1941 - History

Most of the dead - members of the People's Temple Christian Church - had consumed a soft drink laced with cyanide and sedatives.

However, the body of the People's Temple charismatic leader, Jim Jones, was said to have a bullet wound in the right temple, believed to be self-inflicted.

The deaths are being linked to the earlier killings of five people, including US Congressman Leo Ryan, on a nearby airstrip.

Mr Ryan had led a fact-finding mission to the church's jungle settlement - Jonestown - after allegations by relatives in the US of human rights abuses.

Last year Jim Jones and most of the 1,000 members of the People's Temple moved to Guyana from San Francisco after an investigation began into the church for tax evasion.

People who had left the organisation told the authorities of brutal beatings, murders and a mass suicide plan but were not believed.

In spite of the tax evasion allegations, Jim Jones was still widely respected for setting up a racially-mixed church which helped the disadvantaged.

Leo Ryan's delegation arrived in Jonestown on 14 November and spent three days interviewing residents.

They left hurriedly earlier on Saturday after an attempt on Mr Ryan's life, taking with them about 20 People's Temple members who wished to leave.

Delegation members told police as they were boarding planes at the airstrip a truckload of Jim Jones' guards arrived and began to shoot.

When the gunmen left five people were dead: Congressman Ryan, a reporter and cameraman from NBC, a newspaper photographer and one "defector" from the People's Temple.

A producer for NBC News, Bob Flick, survived the attack.

Mr Flick said: "Every time someone fell down wounded they would walk over and shoot them in the head with a shotgun."

It concluded there was no evidence of US government complicity as was widely alleged.

In December 1986 a church member, Larry Layton, received a life sentence for aiding and abetting the murders of those who died at the airstrip.

Layton had gone to the airstrip pretending to be a defector then produced a gun and injured two people.

The bodies of 412 people who committed suicide were never claimed by relatives - they are buried in a mass grave in Oakland, California.


18 November 1941 - History


First there was standard time

For millennia, people have measured time based on the position of the sun it was noon when the sun was highest in the sky. Sundials were used well into the Middle Ages, at which time mechanical clocks began to appear. Cities would set their town clock by measuring the position of the sun, but every city would be on a slightly different time.

The time indicated by the apparent sun on a sundial is called Apparent Solar Time, or true local time. The time shown by the fictitious sun is called Mean Solar Time, or local mean time when measured in terms of any longitudinal meridian.

[For more information about clocks, see A Walk through Time.]

Standard time begins in Britain

Britain was the first country to set the time throughout a region to one standard time. The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time, and they forced a uniform time on the country. The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828) and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903). The Great Western Railway was the first to adopt London time, in November 1840. Other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most (though not all) railways used London time. On September 22, 1847, the Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it. The transition occurred on December 1 for the L&NW, the Caledonian, and presumably other railways the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many railways as using GMT. By 1855, the vast majority of public clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands, one for local time and one for GMT). The last major holdout was the legal system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13. The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition of Time) Act took effect it received the Royal Assent on August 2, 1880.

Standard time in time zones was instituted in the U.S. and Canada by the railroads on November 18, 1883. Prior to that, time of day was a local matter, and most cities and towns used some form of local solar time, maintained by a well-known clock (on a church steeple, for example, or in a jeweler's window). The new standard time system was not immediately embraced by all, however. (The train at right is a Union locomotive used during the American Civil War, photo ca. 1861-1865.)

The first man in the United States to sense the growing need for time standardization was an amateur astronomer, William Lambert, who as early as 1809 presented to Congress a recommendation for the establishment of time meridians. This was not adopted, nor was the initial suggestion of Charles Dowd of Saratoga Springs, N.Y., in 1870. Dowd revised his proposal in 1872, and it was adopted virtually unchanged by U.S. and Canadian railways eleven years later.

Detroit kept local time until 1900, when the City Council decreed that clocks should be put back 28 minutes to Central Standard Time. Half the city obeyed, while half refused. After considerable debate, the decision was rescinded and the city reverted to sun time. A derisive offer to erect a sundial in front of the city hall was referred to the Committee on Sewers. Then, in 1905, Central Standard Time was adopted by city vote.

It remained for a Canadian civil and railway engineer, Sandford Fleming, to instigate the initial effort that led to the adoption of the present time meridians in both Canada and the U.S. Time zones were first used by the railroads in 1883 to standardize their schedules. Canada's Sir Sandford Fleming (posing at left, at the driving the last spike of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Sandford Fleming wears the stovepipe hat and is to the left of the man with the hammer) also played a key role in the development of a worldwide system of keeping time. Trains had made the old system - where major cities and regions set clocks according to local astronomical conditions - obsolete. Fleming advocated the adoption of a standard or mean time and hourly variations from that according to established time zones. He was instrumental in convening the 1884 International Prime Meridian Conference in Washington, at which the system of international standard time - still in use today - was adopted.

Although the large railway systems in U.S. and Canada adopted standard time at noon on November 18, 1883, it was many years before such time was actually used by the people themselves.

The use of standard time gradually increased because of its obvious practical advantages for communication and travel. Standard time in time zones was established by U.S. law with the Standard Time Act of 1918, enacted on March 19. Congress adopted standard time zones based on those set up by the railroads, and gave the responsibility to make any changes in the time zones to the Interstate Commerce Commission, the only federal transportation regulatory agency at the time. When Congress created the Department of Transportation in 1966, it transferred the responsibility for the time laws to the new department.

Time zone boundaries have changed greatly since their original introduction and changes still occasionally occur. The Department of Transportation conducts rulemakings to consider requests for changes. Generally, time zone boundaries have tended to shift westward. Places on the eastern edge of a time zone can effectively move sunset an hour later (by the clock) by shifting to the time zone immediately to their east. If they do so, the boundary of that zone is locally shifted to the west the accumulation of such changes results in the long-term westward trend. The process is not inexorable, however, since the late sunrises experienced by such places during the winter may be regarded as too undesirable. Furthermore, under the law, the principal standard for deciding on a time zone change is the "convenience of commerce." Proposed time zone changes have been both approved and rejected based on this criterion, although most such proposals have been accepted.


Important If you install a language pack after you install this update, you must reinstall this update. Therefore, we recommend that you install any language packs that you need before you install this update. For more information, see Add language packs to Windows.

Method 1: Windows Update

This update will be downloaded and installed automatically.

Method 2: Microsoft Update Catalog

To get the stand-alone package for this update, go to the Microsoft Update Catalog website.

Prerequisites

There are no prerequisites for installing this update.

Restart information

You have to restart the computer after you apply this update.

Update replacement information

This update replaces the previously released update 3105211.


Watch the video: 164 - Stalingrad, Stalingrad, Stalingrad, No Retreat! - WW2 - October 16, 1942 (June 2022).


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