The story

Benedictine Convent of St John at Müstair (UNESCO/NHK)

Benedictine Convent of St John at Müstair (UNESCO/NHK)



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

>

The Convent of Müstair, which stands in a valley in the Grisons, is a good example of Christian monastic renovation during the Carolingian period. It has Switzerland's greatest series of figurative murals, painted c. A.D. 800, along with Romanesque frescoes and stuccoes.

Source: UNESCO TV / © NHK Nippon Hoso Kyokai
URL: http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/269/


Benedictine Convent of St John at Müstair

The Convent of Müstair, which stands in a valley in the Grisons, is a good example of Christian monastic renovation during the Carolingian period. It has Switzerland's greatest series of figurative murals, painted c. A.D. 800, along with Romanesque frescoes and stuccoes.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Couvent bénédictin Saint-Jean-des-Sœurs à Müstair

Caractéristique du renouveau monastique chrétien à l'époque carolingienne, le couvent de Müstair, situé dans une vallée des Grisons, conserve le plus important ensemble de peintures murales de Suisse, exécutées vers 800, ainsi que des fresques et des stucs de l'époque romane.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

دير القديس يوحنا للراهبات في موستاير

يحافظ دير موستاير الذي يجسّد ميزة للنهضة الرهبانية المسيحية في العصر الكارولينجي والقابع في وادي غراوبندن على أهم مجموعة من اللوحات الجدارية العائدة الى عام 800 في سويسرا وعلى الجدرانيات والنقوش الجصية المرتقية الى العهد الروماني.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

米兹泰尔的木笃会圣约翰女修道院

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Бенедиктинский монастырь Св. Иоанна в Мюстаире

Монастырь в Мюстаире, находящийся в горной долине в кантоне Гризон, это наглядный пример обновления деятельности христианских монастырей в эпоху Каролингов. Он обладает крупнейшим в Швейцарии собранием фигурных настенных росписей, относящихся к IХ в., а также романскими фресками и лепниной.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Convento benedictino de Saint-Jean-des-Soeurs en Müstair

Situado en un valle del cantón de los Grisones, este convento es un exponente característico de la renovación de la vida monástica cristiana en la época carolingia. Conserva frescos y estucos del período románico, así como el conjunto de pinturas murales más importante de toda Suiza, ejecutado hacia el año 800.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

ミュスタイルのベネディクト会聖ヨハネ修道院
Benedictijner klooster van Sint Johannes in Müstair

Het klooster van Müstair – in een vallei in de Graubünden – is een goed voorbeeld van christelijke kloostervernieuwing tijdens de Karolingische periode. Het heeft de grootste reeks figuratieve muurschilderingen van Zwitserland – geschilderd omstreeks 800 na Christus – en Romaanse fresco’s en stucwerk. Het klooster werd waarschijnlijk omstreeks 780 na Christus gesticht door de bisschop van Chur. Vanaf het begin van de 9de eeuw stond het bekend als een instelling van de Benedictijnen, het werd pas in 1163 een klooster. Het belangrijkste gebouw van het kloostercomplex is de kerk, gewijd aan Sint Johannes de Doper.

  • English
  • French
  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • Russian
  • Spanish
  • Japanese
  • Dutch

Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The Benedictine Convent of St John at Müstair, located in a valley of the Grisons in the extreme south-eastern part of Switzerland, south of the Alps, was founded around 775, probably on the orders of Charlemagne. At the beginning of the 9th century it was noted as being an establishment of religious Benedictines, and became a women’s abbey in the first half of the 12th century. Religious activities have continued uninterrupted until the present day, with the abbey becoming a priory in 1810. Today, the convent ensemble comprises the Carolingian conventual church and the Saint Cross Church, the residential tower of the Abbess von Planta, the ancient residence of the bishop, including two rectangular courtyards. To the west the courtyard is surrounded by cloisters, two entrance towers and agricultural buildings.

The property reflects both the history of its construction and the political and socio-economic relations in this region and throughout Europe over more than 1200 years, and thus provides a coherent example of Carolingian conventual architecture over time.

The conventual church houses the most important cycle of frescoes of the Carolingian era conserved in situ. The creation of these frescoes is dated around the first half of the 9th century. The church, which is conserved for the most part in its Carolingian style, was initially destined as a space to be decorated with paintings: representations of the history of Christ decorate its entire perimeter, the apses and the inner walls. The scenes are laid out in a decorative way with elements connected by thematic and spatial correspondence and represent an outstanding example of Christian iconography.

Criterion (iii): The conventual ensemble is one of the most coherent architectural works of the Carolingian period and High Middle Ages, with the most extensive cycle of known paintings for the first half of the 9th century. The figurative paintings of the Roman era, and especially the Carolingian period, are particularly important for understanding the evolution of certain iconographic Christian themes, such as the Last Judgement.

The property comprises the entire monastic ensemble and the annex elements for agricultural exploitation located within the walls of the ensemble. The property includes all the requisite elements to express its Outstanding Universal Value.

Authenticity

Historical and archaeological researches have determined all the restoration work in strict respect of the original substance since the 1947-1951 campaign. The property fulfills the conditions of authenticity not only with regard to the material substance, but also from the functional perspective: the convent is still a religious centre for Benedictine sisters.

Protection and management requirements

The property benefits from legal protection at all State levels and therefore benefits from the highest possible protection. Federal protection is inscribed in the land register and the competent authority of the Confederation must grant its approval for all work foreseen at the site. The Cantonal listing also ensures the conservation under the competent cantonal authority and forbids any demolition. The property is located in a protected zone in the local town plan for the commune. The boundaries of the property are located in a non-constructible zone and guarantee maintenance of the landscape values of the property.

The “Pro Kloster Müstair” Foundation that exists since 1968 is responsible for the management and conservation of the property. It comprises a foundation council, a directorate and a director. In particular, it establishes and implements the plans for conservation and archaeological research, as well as the funding, communication and development plans. It establishes the annual budget for the property and in its capacity as site manager, plans and controls maintenance and restoration work.

A convention between the Foundation and the Benedictine sisters regulates the management and coordination of the different needs and requests, concerning scientific and archaeological research, as well as maintenance of the ensemble, the religious function, agricultural exploitation and visitor expectations. Regular and close contact with the competent authorities at all State levels guarantees a use of the property that has conservation as its primary concern.


Carolinguan Monastery in Switzerland

Your Easy-access (EZA) account allows those in your organisation to download content for the following uses:

  • Tests
  • Samples
  • Composites
  • Layouts
  • Rough cuts
  • Preliminary edits

It overrides the standard online composite licence for still images and video on the Getty Images website. The EZA account is not a licence. In order to finalise your project with the material you downloaded from your EZA account, you need to secure a licence. Without a licence, no further use can be made, such as:

  • focus group presentations
  • external presentations
  • final materials distributed inside your organisation
  • any materials distributed outside your organisation
  • any materials distributed to the public (such as advertising, marketing)

Because collections are continually updated, Getty Images cannot guarantee that any particular item will be available until time of licensing. Please carefully review any restrictions accompanying the Licensed Material on the Getty Images website and contact your Getty Images representative if you have a question about them. Your EZA account will remain in place for a year. Your Getty Images representative will discuss a renewal with you.

By clicking the Download button, you accept the responsibility for using unreleased content (including obtaining any clearances required for your use) and agree to abide by any restrictions.


Plant

The church is part of the St. Johann Benedictine Convent , a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1983 . The master's cycle of frescoes is the most extensive and best-preserved example of the few remaining wall paintings from the Carolingian era. It was probably made between 785 and 795. Originally the cycle covered the choir and all the walls of the church in five horizontal strips.

A large part of the Carolingian pictures remained in their original state, as the church complex was never destroyed and only changed in pieces. The master's works were repainted around 1200 in a high medieval style. Some of the scenes on the west wall were lost around 1500 due to the installation of a gallery . The frescoes were whitewashed around 1200, rediscovered in 1884 and, above all, exposed from 1947 to 1951. The east wall and pictures in the three apses remained in their painted over form.

The master shows a number of scenes from the Old Testament about King David as well as from the life of John the Baptist . Mainly the pictures tell about life and passion and the resurrection of Christ. The painter was able to present a Christian salvation story in pictures to the observer who was mostly ignorant of reading.

A comparison of the master’s works with later overpaintings shows the development of early medieval painting with its fine ocher and red tones around 800 to the stronger coloring in bright colors of the High Middle Ages around 1200.


Convent of St John

The history of the Convent of St John extends back to the time of Charlemagne, over 1200 years ago. The Frankish king was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in 800, thus becoming the first medieval ruler of the Western world. Local folklore, according to which the religious community was founded by Charlemagne himself between 780-90, has been confirmed by recent archaeological research and the dendrochronogical date 775.

St John's was founded as a monastery and converted into a convent in the 12th century. Benedictine nuns still live in the convent today.

The history of the Convent of St John extends back to the time of Charlemagne, over 1200 years ago. The Frankish king was crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in 800, thus becoming the first medieval ruler of the Western world. Local folklore, according to which the religious community was founded by Charlemagne himself between 780-90, has been confirmed by recent archaeological research and the dendrochronogical date 775.

St John's was founded as a monastery and converted into a convent in the 12th century. Benedictine nuns still live in the convent today.


History

Apart from a few remains dating from the Paleolithic and discovered in caves in the Doubs valley , there is no evidence of the presence of humans in the high valley of La Chaux-de-Fonds until the Middle Ages .

La Chaux-de-Fonds was first mentioned in 1350 as la Chaz de Fonz, as a summer pasture for the farmers from the Val de Ruz . Early writing variants are la Chaul de Fons (1342), la Chaul de Font (1358) and la Chault de Font (1378). The first member of the name goes back to Celtic * calm 'uninhabited, dry land'. The second part of the name is difficult to interpret, perhaps there is a reference to Fontaines in the Val de Ruz. If the latter explanation is correct, La Chaux-de-Fonds means «Fontaines summer pasture». The article in the place name is an indication that the place was not settled until after the 12th century.

The reclamation and settlement of the high valley of La Chaux-de-Fonds took place in two phases: In the 14th century, farmers from the Val de Ruz settled here, while in the 15th and 16th centuries, settlers from the Vallée des Ponts and came from Le Locle . The area was under the rule of Valangin . Due to the scarcity of water in the high valley (in contrast to Le Locle, there is no surface running water with which mills or sawmills could be operated) La Chaux-de-Fonds initially developed very slowly. The Reformation was introduced in the area around 1530 . In the 16th century, La Chaux-de-Fonds only consisted of a few houses and various individual farms in the area. The lower jurisdiction over the place had Le Locle held that high jurisdiction was the Lords of Valangin. Together with the rule of Valangin, La Chaux-de-Fonds came under the sovereignty of the county of Neuchâtel in 1592 .

An initial phase of growth began during the Thirty Years' War , because the place was relatively cheap on the trade routes from Neuchâtel to Franche-Comté and to Basel . With a deed signed by the Prince of Neuchâtel, La Chaux-de-Fonds was elevated to a municipality with its own lower court district (Mairie) on December 2, 1656, which authorized the place to hold three annual markets and one weekly market.

The real economic boom in La Chaux-de-Fonds began in the 18th century with the introduction of lace , which established itself alongside traditional handicrafts. Watchmaking , which was founded in nearby Le Locle, also gained a foothold in La Chaux-de-Fonds in the early 18th century . Both the lace manufacture and the manufacture of the watch parts initially took place mainly in home work . With the new technical possibilities, La Chaux-de-Fonds quickly developed into an industrial community at the end of the 18th century. Numerous factories were built .

Social tensions due to the different legal status of the residents - there were citizens, free farmers and backers (other residents) - were the reason that the French Revolution was welcomed in La Chaux-de-Fonds. Many watchmakers moved to Besançon, France, in 1793 . After a devastating conflagration in 1794 had cremated almost three quarters of the village, the rebuilding of the modern city with a rectangular floor plan began under Moïse Perret-Gentil .

La Chaux-de-Fonds was part of the Principality of Neuchâtel, which was linked to the Kingdom of Prussia from 1707 through a personal union. In 1806 the area was ceded to Napoleon I and came to the Swiss Confederation in the course of the Congress of Vienna in 1815 , whereby the kings of Prussia up to the Neuchâtel trade in 1857 also remained princes of Neuchâtel.

At the beginning of the 19th century, La Chaux-de-Fonds quickly rose to become the center of the thriving watch industry . Unlike Le Locle, which lies in a narrow valley basin, La Chaux-de-Fonds had plenty of opportunities to expand. The strict chessboard layout was retained when the city was expanded from 1835 onwards. After the Neuchâtel Revolution of 1848, the city developed into the economic center of the canton of Neuchâtel and became the capital of a district. The watch industry recruited workers from the rest of the canton as well as the cantons of Vaud and Bern, which led to a sharp increase in the German-speaking portion of the population. The massive immigration in the second half of the 19th century and the associated expansion of the city resulted in an urbanity that was known from American cities at the time.

The area changed in 1900, when the village of Les Eplatures , which originally belonged to Le Locle and formed an independent municipality from 1848, was merged with La Chaux-de-Fonds.

In the early 20th century there were multiple social tensions that culminated in strikes. At the community level, the Social Democrats replaced the previously dominant radical democrats in 1912 . In the following period, the left-wing parties always held a majority in the General Council and the City Council. From the same year (until 1971) the social democratic daily La Sentinelle appeared . Crises in the watch industry during the 1920s and 1930s led to a diversification of the industry and the establishment of new branches of industry.

The city spread out onto the surrounding slopes, but from 1920 onwards, when building the new outlying quarters, for topographical reasons, the strict right-angled floor plan was deviated from. After the Second World War there was again strong growth and a further boom in the watch industry. As a result of the recession of the 1970s, numerous companies (especially the watchmaking industry) had to close, so that unemployment rose rapidly and La Chaux-de-Fonds suffered a significant decline in the number of inhabitants. In this decade, the once dominant watch industry was replaced by the precision mechanics, micromechanics and electronics sectors a process that continues to this day.


Watch the video: Benedictine Convent of St John at Müstair UNESCONHK (August 2022).